Music 101, Week 1 Notes
Music 101, Week 1 Notes Music 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zackary Windham on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Music 101 at Brigham Young University taught by Hannah C. McLaughlin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Music in Music at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Unit 1: Materials of Music Day 1- 29 Aug 2016 This class is a Western Classical History class. To find music to listen to: go to lib.byu.edu, go to databases, type in “naxos”. Go to playlists tab. Go to “Music 101- McLaughlin” playlist. Submit writing assignments through Learning Suite Music- an art form whose medium is sound and silence The Enjoyment of Music- “Chapter 1”: Notes Melody: a musical line, the tune We can relate to pitches in a melody the same way we relate to words in a sentence; not as single entities but an entire cohesive thought. The contour of a melody is its shape, like a curve on a graph. Melodies with small intervals where the pitches are mainly connected are conjunct, melodies with large, disconnected intervals are disjunct. A cadence comes at the end of a phrase, or a musical sentence. Cadences are rests or pauses. With lyrics, the verbal sentences usually fit the musical sentences, or vice versa. “Amazing Grace” has four phrases and they each turn downward or end in upward inflection to signify it has not yet ended until the fourth phrase when it rests. More complex tunes have countermelodies, which plays off and underneath the melody. The Enjoyment of Music- “Chapter 3” Notes Harmony is the simultaneous combination of sounds. It describes a piece’s chords and the progression from one chord to the next. “We have learned to express the more delicate nuances of feeling by penetrating more deeply into the mysteries of harmony.”- Robert Schumann A chord is when three or more notes sound together. The most common chord in Western music is a triad; it is built by choosing a starting note from the eight notes on a scale and adding every other note. For example, the 1 , st 3 , and 5 notes are a triad. Or the 2 , 4 , and 6 notes. In most western music, the first note of the scale (do) is the tonic; the whole piece revolves around this note. This organization around a tonic is called tonality. Dissonance is a combination of notes that sound unstable and sometimes harsh, that needs resolution. Dissonance resolves in consonance, a stable combination of notes that provides a feeling of relaxation and fulfillment. In many Asian cultures, harmony is very simple, consisting only of a single sustained pitch called a drone. Harmonies have mainly evolved in Western music. Day 2- 31 Aug 2016 There are four dimensions of sound: pitch (frequency), loudness, duration, timbre. Pitch- highness or lowness of sound dependent on its wave frequency in hertz. 2 When you jump an octave, the frequency is multiplied by two. Melody can be thought of as the horizontal aspect of pitch; it moves through time. Harmony can be thought of as the vertical aspect of pitch. Consonance vs. Dissonance= Harmonic rest vs harmonic unrest Easier ratio between notes= easier on the brain, more consonance. Subdominant notes or chords are the notes or chords that aren’t the tonic or the dominant. The dominant is the note that leads to the tonic. Like the 7 sometimes. Texture: Where harmony and melody meet -Monophony: single solo line, no accompaniment -Polyphony: 2 or more independent lines of equal importance -Homophony: Melody plus accompaniment -Homorhythm: A type of homophony where all voice move together in the same rhythm. The Enjoyment of Music- “Chapter 2”: Notes Rhythm is what moves music forward in time. Beat- basic unit of rhythm. When some beats are stronger than others, they are accented. Meter is how rhythm is organized in patterns, and measures or bars are notations for meter. A measure ends on a measure/ bar line. Typically, meter in Western music mimics accents found in poetry, like iambic meter (da DUM da DUM da DUM) 3 The first accented beat of each pattern is a downbeat. There is duple meter (ONE two ONE two), triple meter (ONE two three ONE two three (like a waltz)) and quadruple meter. In simple meter, the beat is divided into two. Simple duple- ONE-and two-and ONE-and two-and. In compound meter, the beat is divided into three. Compound duple- ONE-and-a TWO-and-a ONE-and-a TWO- and-a. Syncopation is a deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accents. Accents are shifting to weak beats, offbeats. Additive rhythms- larger patterns are built from combinations of smaller patterns. Nonmetric music exists, without a strong beat or present meter. The Enjoyment of Music- “Chapter 7”: Notes Tempo is the speed at which a piece moves. Tempo is important because this is a large part of how the music is expressive; it can speed up in excitement or slow down in majesty. Dynamics are the other side of musical expression, the volume. A piece can crescendo to an emotional climax or decrescendo to a quietly tense section. 4 5
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