Bio 160 Week 2
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meredith Buller on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bisc 160 at University of Mississippi taught by SYMULA, REBECCA E in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
8/31 Notes Macromolecules are grouped into four categories • Macromolecules vary in molecular properties • Functional groups • Polarity • Charge Proteins have a variety of roles: • Enzymes Defense • • Hormones, regulatory • Receptors • Storage • Structural • Transport • Genetic regulation Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Table of amino acids light blue = charged, hydrophilic purple = polar, hydrophilic orange = special tan = non-polar hydrophobic carbon to oxygen bond is polar Amino acids are joined by peptide linkages Polypeptides are formed by joining many amino acids • Covalent bonds between C=O and N Sequence order (R side chains). • Proteins have 4 levels of organization • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary • Quaternary The order of the linkages is the primary structure Secondary structure forms between amino and carboxyl groups Tertiary structure forms between side-chains • Hydrogen bonds • Hydrophobic interactions • van der Waals forces Ionic bonds • • Disulﬁde bridges Quaternary structure forms between separate polypeptides Bio Notes 8/29 Ch. 3 2 parts of homework: written questions and is not turned in print the document (don’t turn in) A “questions” portion that you do on launchpad (must be done by yourself) Water is the “solvent” for life • solution, solute • Aqueous - solutions in water • Water soluble - dissolves in water (interacts with molecules of water) Moles - number of molecules • - 1 mole of oxygen = 6.02x10^23 molecules - 1 mole of glucose = 6.02x10^23 - a 1 molar solution of NaCl has 6.02x10^23 molecules of NaCl in 1L Aqueous soltuions are water based • Solution, solute • Aqueous • Concentrations are low • Micromolar Aqueous solutions vary in H+ concentration - Hal > H+ + Cl- • Dissociation • Acids release H+ (proton) • Bases accept H+ • When a molecule releases a molecule it is an acid pH is measured on a logarithmic scale • low pH value is acidic, high is basic • 10 fold differences (between 1&2 is 10 difference) • Negative logarithm • Small pH = large # H+ 7 is neutral (10-7) • • pH can alter homeostasis - can interact with molecules working in cells Water is a weak acid and a weak base • water has a H+ concentration of 10-7 (0.00000001 M) **neutral** • not basic or acidic (has properties of both) • 2 H2O > OH- + H3O+ - reversible reaction Question: Covalent bonds.. Require energy to be broken Carbon compounds are required in living things • Six electrons = 4 bonds • Carbon has 6 electrons therefore can form 4 bonds • Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds. • Type of bond can change angle or shape Know how to identify a polar molecule!!! • Functional groups inﬂuence molecular properties • Small groups of atoms • Different properties • Many in a single molecule • Always reactive groups !!! NEED TO KNOW AND IDENTIFY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS!!! ﬁgure 3.1 in book • Hydroxyl groups form H+ bonds with water • Aldehydes are reactive, energy-releasing (carbonyl at end), usually at the end of a molecule, has a hydrogen bound to it. • Ketones are polar, important in energy reactions (carbonyl in middle), carbon double bonded to an oxygen • Carboxyl groups are acidic - C double bonded to OH, extremely reactive • Amino groups are basic - Nitrogen bonded to hydrogen • Phosphate group are negatively charged, very polar, tend to lose hydrogen, lots of energy because of the double bond • Sulfhydryl groups can form covalent bonds, • Methyl groups (not really functional) are non-polar, low-reactivity, if put together they react with each other Isomers have atoms arranged differently •Isomers: structural, optical • When formula is the same but structure is different it is a isomer • Isomers can sometimes not react with a cell Molecule structure determines function • Ex. Poison frog toxin • Interacts with a sodium channel, and causes muscles to paralyze Biological macromolecules are only found in living things biological macromolecules are not found anywhere else • • unique to biology • break down macromolecules in parts: proteins (most), nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids (least). • macromolecules are made and broken • Made by using condensation • Monomer, when 2 linked together its a polymer • Broken by using hydrolysis - water is used to break down the bond and release energy • Bio Notes 9/2 Objectives • Describe the structure and function of carbohydrates and their building blocks • Describe the structure, function and diversity of lipids • Describe the structure and function of nucleic acids. Tertiary structure forms between side-chains Hydrogen bonds • • Hydrophobic bonds Disulﬁde bridges are covalent bonds between cysteine side chains. In proteins, disulﬁde bridges form a stable structure. Ex. when you get a perm you break disulﬁde bridges. Quaternary structure forms between separate polypeptides • Hydrogen bonds • Hydrophobic reactions • Van der Waals forces Ionic bonds • • Disulﬁde bridges Shape and chemistry inﬂuence function • Ionic interactions • Hydrophobic interactions • Hydrogen bonds • Adding heat or charge can change ionic interactions (change shape) Weak interactions polypeptide make membrane channels ﬂexible Channels open and close Bio macromolecules: in order of abundance - proteins, nucleic acids, carbs, lipids Carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides (simple sugars). Can identify monosaccharides formula: Cn(H2O)n Monosaccharides can vary in the number of carbons. Monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkages. Condensation=dehydration Polysaccharides can be chains, or branched Polysaccharide structure can alter molecular interactions Carbohydrates can be modiﬁed with different functional groups. • Redox reactions • Add functional groups Lipids (fats) have a variety of functions - not bad • fats and oils (energy storage) • Phospholipids (cell membranes) • Carotenoids/chlorophylls (energy capture) • Steroids (hormones and vitamins) • Stored fat (thermal insulation) • Lipid coat (electrical insulation) (rapid nerve transmission) • Oil or wax (water repellent) Lipids contain many non-polar hydrocarbons • No single monomer!! • Are they water soluble? Triglycerides (simple lipids) are synthesized by condensation -Glycerol (an alcohol) - ol means alcohol When you build a triglyceride you take 3 waters to create it -Ester linkage When you break apart fats you need to add water (hydrolysis) At room temperature fats are solid, oils are liquid room temperature solid- not good fat room temperature liquid - good fats triglycerides can be saturated or unsaturated can be double or single bonds unsaturated can be broken bending of chains are important in telling how ﬂuid phospholipids form biological membranes top is charged and polar, bottom is non polar hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail they form a bilayer (double layer) of phospholipids when put in water catenoids get fruit and vegetables colorful lipids can be messenger molecules for hormones