CHEM 1101, Week 3 notes
CHEM 1101, Week 3 notes CHE 1101
Popular in Introduction Chemistry I
Popular in Chemistry
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashton Cress on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 1101 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Brittany Lauren Woods in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction Chemistry I in Chemistry at Appalachian State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
History ofthePeriodic Table -summarize periodic properties of elements -arranged by increaseofatomic mass -Mendeleev (Russian)andMeyer (German) in 1869 -Noted repeated periodic properties MODERN PERIODIC TABLE -arranged by increasing atomic number -rows calledperiods -columns calledgroups Noticed Trends -when arranging elements based on atomic number, trends started to appear -placedsimilarlybehaved elements in vertical columns 1A: alkali 2A: Alkaline Earth 7A: Halogens 8A: Noble Gases 6A: Chalcogens metalloids: 8 elements semiconductors properties similarto both nonmetals and metals Nonmetals: *THIS INCLUDESHYRDROGEN* Liquid, gases,andsolids Non-conductor of heat and electricity Insulators Usuallyin compounds or mixtures react with metals metals: metallic luster ductile high electrical andheat conductivity allare solidsat roomtemp.EXCEPTHg Transition Metals:Group B Multiple Charges Inter-transition metals:Radioactive Actinide elements (#90-103) Lanthanide elements (#58-71) Periods: horizontal Groups:vertical Group A: outsides (main group) Group B:middle (transition metals) Metals: leftsideof periodic table Nonmetal: right sideof periodic table (and H) Moleculesand Molecular Compounds FUN FACTS: OnlyNoble gases arefound isolatedin nature Molecules are assembledof two or more atoms tightly bound together You write them in chemical formulas! ChemicalFormulas Usethe Chemical symbol Indicates which atoms arefound inthe molecule and what proportion they arefound FORMAT: subscripts are given after chemical symbol to represent a relative number of each atom TypesofChemical Formulas Free Elements -elements not combined with another -justuse the chemical symbol i.eAu, Ag,Na, Fe Non-metal molecular compounds Non0metal and non-metal Ionic Compounds Metal and non-metal Acids Diatomic molecules: 2atoms, do not have to be the same KNOW: Nitric Acid (HNO )3 Sulfuric Acid (2 SO4) Hydrochloric acid(HCl) Phosphoric Acid (H 3O 4) Some elements are found in nature in molecular form Diatomic vs Triatomic O 2s O 3ehave differently and have different properties NOTE:when we speak ofthesesubstances,we mean their diatomic formunlessexpressly stated Howto writetheformula Molecular formula: givethe actual numbers and types of atoms ina molecule e.x. H2O,CO 2, ,O4,H 2 ,2 H2 2 4 Empirical Formula: Give the relative numbers and types of atoms in a molecule MOLECULAR EMPIRICAL H 2 2 HO CH 4 CH 4 C 2 6 2 CH 3 HF HF Molecular formula may equal the empirical formula Howto drawit Structure formula -shows which atoms are attached to which, within a molecule Counting atoms 1. Subscript following a chemical symbol indicates how many of that element are a part of the formula a. No subscripts imply an understood subscript of one 2. Quantity inparenthesis is repeated a number of times equal to the subscript that follows a. Mg(OH) …2There is one Mg, two O,and two H 3. Raiseddot in a formula indicates that a substanceis a hydrate a. CaSO ·4H O 2 DaltonsAtomic Theory Explains lawof Conservation of Mass Explains Lawof DefiniteProportions Predicted Lawof Multiple Proportions -not yet discovered -some elements combine to give two or more compounds (SO 2nd SO )3 -whole numbers of atoms (not fractions)given Howdo we namecompounds Nomenclature: IUPAC system to standardize name of chemical compounds Molecular compounds
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