Bio I USF Chapter 5 NOTES
Bio I USF Chapter 5 NOTES BSC 2010
Popular in Biology I Cellular Processes
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.
Reviews for Bio I USF Chapter 5 NOTES
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 5 – The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Yellow: Vocabulary GREE: Key concepts Macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids. I. The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Enzymes: facilitate process of protein breakdown by acting as catalysis. Dehydration: happens when 2 molecules SYNTHESIZE the molecules have + backbones of hydroxyl (OH ) and Hydrogen (H ) and to unite both monomers a covalent bond is formed Hydrolysis: used to break bonds between monomers by adding water the compound, breaking the water molecule. Concept 5.2 Carbohydrates: includes monosaccharides and polymers of sugar. I. Sugars Molecular formulas of the empirical formula CH O 2 Carbonyl: CO Classifications of Carbon Skeletons: Aldoses (Aldehyde Sugars): Carbonyl group at END of carbon skeleton Ketoses (Ketone Sugars): Carbonyl groups WITHIN carbon skeleton Trioses: 3carbon sugars (C H O ) 3 6 3 Pentose: 5carbon sugars (C H O5) 10 5 Hexoses: 6carbon sugars (C H O 6 –12r6sent mostly in rings Linear: carbons form in a straight line Ring: carbon molecules are arranged in a ring. Disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage (a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by dehydration). * Most prevalent sugar is SUCROSE – table sugar – made of glucose (6C) and fructose (5C)* II. Polysaccharides Are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousands monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage. a. Storage Polysaccharides Starch: polymer of glucose monomers – alpha glucose Amylose: simplest form of starch… unbranched… 14 linkage Amylopectin: complex form of starch… branched… 16 linkage (bended shape) Glycogen: like Amylopectin but more extensively branches *Mainly in liver and muscle cells* b. Structural polysaccharides Cellulose: major component of the cell wall of plants – the most abundant organic compound on earth Beta glucose They do not branch Allow for hydrogen bonding Chitin: the carbohydrate used by arthropods (insects) to build their exoskeletons. (beta cellulose) Concept 5.3 Lipids: generally not large enough to be considereda macromolecule I. Fats Made of: Glycerol: is an alcohol which has 3 carbons with a hydroxyl group each Fatty acids: long (abt 1618 carbons) with a Carboxyl (COOH) backbone – which is why is an acid. The rest of the chain is hydrocarbons. Ester linkage: dehydration reaction between the carboxyl group of the fatty acid and the hydroxyl group of the glycerol Triacylglycerol (triglyceride): 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol http://sabrebrains.blogspot.com/201 1/02/lipids.html Types of fats: Saturated: as many hydrogen as possible are bound to carbon and there is no double bonds to any carbon * Because it has no bends it’s flexible and allows the fat to fold in itself.* Unsaturated: there is at least one double bond of carbon * Hydrogenated vegetable oil refers to naturally unsaturated fats that had been synthetically saturated by adding hydrogens*6 Polyunsaturated: more than one double bond of carbon. Trans fat: hydrogenating vegetable oil. Uses: Fats are mainly used to store energy Serves as cushion to another organs (like the kidneys) The subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) serves to insulate the body. II. Phospholipids Major factor in membranes Has one 2 fatty acids with glycerol The 3 Glycerol is tied to a phosphate group (PO ) 4 Behavior: The hydrocarbons in one end are hydrophobic because they are NOT polar The other end of it the phosphate has a negative charge therefore its hydrophilic. When dropped into the water all the hydrophobic tails kind of arrange together so the polar heads are facing the water creating a double layer (bilayer) III. Steroids Carbon skeletons consisting of 4 fused rings Cholesterol: Important to membranes In vertebrates... its stored in the liver and acquired from the diet Concept 5.4 Catalysts: chemical agents that selectively speeds up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction Polypeptide: polymers of peptides of amino acids Protein: polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific threedimensional structure I. Amino Acid Monomers An organic molecules with both an amino group and a carboxyl group (NH CHRCOOH)2 Alpha carbon: the carbon RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE of the amino acid… the one attached to the R group. There are 20 amino acids to code for all the proteins II. Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers) Peptide bond: occurs to link 2 amino acids together so that one side (Amino group) is next to the Carboxyl group and by process of dehydration. *SHAPE DETERMINES FUNCTION* a. 4 Levels of Protein Structure Primary Structure: sequence of amino acids, long chain, codification Secondary Structure: coils and folds by hydrogen bonds by backbones Alpha helix: connected by hydrogen bonds every 4 AA *alphakeratin: structural protein of hair* Beta pleated sheet: 2 or more segments of the polypeptide chain lying side by side (beta strands) are connected by hydrogen bonds. *Silk protein of spider webs* *INTERACTIONS OF THE BACKBONES* Tertiary Structure: overall shape of the interactions R groups – 3D shape Hydrophobic interactions: polypeptides form their cluster and the nonpolar hydrophilic part of the peptide ends up in the core of the protein leaving hydrophilic part of the protein is free to interact with other molecules with hydrogen bonds and Van Der Waals interactions keep the hydrophobic portion together. Disulfide Bridges: forms where 2 cysteine monomers (with sulfhydryl – SH) and when the 2 monomers are brought together the 2 sulfurs are attracted to each other and they bond, further reinforcing the shape of the protein. Quaternary Structure: polypeptides put together… the final protein Collagen: 40% of human body Hemoglobin: Oxygen binding b. SickleCell Disease: substitution of one amino acid (valine Val) for the normal (glutamic acid Glu) *DENATURALIZATION: when the protein unfolds c. Protein folding in the cell Chaperonins: protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins Xray Crystallography: used to determine the 3D shape of proteins. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Concept 5.5 Gene: amino acid sequence of a polypeptide Nucleic Acids: made of monomers of nucleotides I. The Roles of Nucleic Acids: gene expression – creating new proteins Has 3 parts: Nitrogenous base Sugar Phosphate Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): genetic material inherited from parents, provides directions for the replication – in 2C it has H Consists in 4 Bases o Pyrimidines – ONE ring with 6membered Cytosine (C) Thymine (T in DNA) Uracil (U in RNA) o Purines – ONE 6membered ring AND 5membered ring Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Ribonucleic acid (RNA): controls protein synthesis in the ribosomes – in 2C has OH II. The Components of Nucleic Acids Polynucleotides: Polymers of nucleic acids Nucleoside: nucleotide without the phosphate part http://watson int.com/carbohydrateand nucleotide/
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'