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Statistics 240, Week 1 Notes

by: Vanessa Olivo

Statistics 240, Week 1 Notes JUST 240_04

Vanessa Olivo
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These notes include Chapter 1 and Chapter 2. Chapter 1 is the "Introduction to the Use of Statistics in Criminal Justice and Criminology" and Chapter 2 pertains to the "Types of Variables and Level...
Statistics for Social Research
Venezia Michalsen
Class Notes
Stats, 240




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Olivo on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 240_04 at Montclair State University taught by Venezia Michalsen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Statistics for Social Research in Justice Studies at Montclair State University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter1:IntroductiontotheUseofStatisticsinCriminalJusticeandCriminology Thegoalofstatisticsistotakeinformationthatyoulearnaboutasampleandgeneralizeittoa populatio. a)Samples-asubdivisionthatispulledfromapopulationwiththeintention ofusingthepeople,placesorobjectsinthesampleasawaytomakea statementthatwillgeneralizetothepopulation. • Samplesmustberepresentative • Therearetwotypesofsamplingtechniques: Non -probability • Biased • Notgeneralized • Nolist • Unequalandunknownchancethatanyelementisgoing tobecollected Examplesofnon-probabilitysamplinginclude: 1. Snowballsample-startswithonepersonandthenhe/shereferstoan acquaintanceorfriend.Thefriendalsorefersafriend,andsoon 2.Availabilitysampling-membersofthepopulationarechosebasedontheirrelative easeofaccess.Rightinfrontofyou. 3.Purposive/judgmentsampling-theresearcherchoosesthesamplebasedonwho theythinkwouldbeappropriateforthestudy. 4.Quotasampling-oversamplecharacteristicsthatyouneed Probability • Generalized • Notbiased • List • Requireseachelementofapopulationhasanequaland knownpossibilityofbeingselectedforasample • Randomselectionwith(replacement) Examplesofprobabilitysamplinginclude: 1.Simplerandomsampling-plain,random,allsubsetsaregivenanequalprobability 2.Systematicrandomsampling-arrangingarandomstartforthestudypopulation andthenproceedingwiththeselectionof______throughtheorderedlist. Ex:selectevery10 namefromtheaddressbook 3.Stratifiedrandomsampling-goesbystagesandproceedsbychoosingwithinthe samplerandomly Ex:youwouldgobyfloorsthenwithinthatfloorgotoclassroomsandwithin theclassroom,youwouldpickstudents 4.Waitedrandomsampling-youhaveasituationwhereyouhavetooverrepresent somethinginyoursample Samplingframe-alistofitemsorpeopleformingapopulationfromwhichasample istaken b)Population-the#ofindividuals,objects,orlocationsintheuniverse. *Samplesaredrawnobservationsfromapopulation* c)Generalize-youtaketheinformationcollectedfromthesampleandmakeit trueforthepopulation. • Togetinformationwithouthavingtosurveyeverysingle person,wouldbetogeneralizeotherwiseitwouldtaketoo muchtimeandmoney. Chapter2:TypesofVariablesandLevelsofMeasurement Hypothesis-aconjecturebetweentherelationshipoftwovariables,independentand dependentvariable Nullhypothesis-thehypothesispredictingthereisnorelationshipbetweenthe independentvariableanddependentvariable. Directionalhypothesis-onevariablecangoupandtheothervariablecango down. Variable-describespeople,objectsandtakesonmultiplevaluesinasampleor population • Allvariableshavevalue • Allvariablescanchange • Allvariableshavealevelofmeasurementwhichcanbefoundbelow: Nominal (Nome/Name/Qualitative)-cannotberanked 1.Pets 2.Gender 3.Race Ordinal (order)-canberanked 1.ChainofCommand 2.Classrank 3.Seniorcitizen,teenager,kid,infant 4.Middleclass,lowerclass,highclass 5.Boss,manager,supervisor Interval-Notusefulinthisclass.Donotpickthisansweronexamorquiz Ratio(numbers,order,truezero,quantitative) *Truezeromeansanabsenceofaphenomenon* 1.Age 2.Money 3.Tuition 4.Numberofpets 5.Howmanycupsofcoffeeyoudrinkinaday • Therearetwovariables:IndependentandDependent Independent Variable • Afactororcharacteristicthatisbeingusedinasampletotrytoexplain orpredictadependentvariable *IVà DV* Ifyouchangetheindependentvariable,doesthedependentvariablealsochange? Dependent Variable • Thephenomenonthatresearchersplantostudy,explain,orpredict Ex:Aresearcherwishestotestthehypothesisthatloweducationaffectscrime.She gathersasampleofpeopleaged25andolder. Independentvariable:#ofchildhoodhospitalized Dependentvariable:#ofemergencynarcan(overdosepreventer)dosesinadulthood Hypothesis:numberofnarcandosesthatoccurinone’sadulthoodmaybebecause theywereabusedasachildandvisitedthehospitaloften Constant-describespeople,objects,andtakesonlyonevalueinasampleor population • Somethingthatcannotchange


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