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Basic Psychology Chapter 2: Psychology's Scientific Method

by: Imani Brown

Basic Psychology Chapter 2: Psychology's Scientific Method

Marketplace > Camden County College > > Basic Psychology Chapter 2 Psychology s Scientific Method
Imani Brown

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Lecture Notes for Basic/Intro Psychology. Topics include: Scientific Method, Correlation Research, Descriptive Research, Scatter Plots, Research Setting
Basic Psychology
Alison Meloni
Class Notes
#scientificmethod, #Psych #Psychology #Intro #Research #Methods, #camdencountycollege, #correlation
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Imani Brown on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Camden County College taught by Alison Meloni in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Basic Psychology Notes Chapter 2: Psychology’s Scientific Method (Definitions and Key Terms are highlighted; Definitions-Yellow and Key Terms- Turquoise) Scientific Method  Science is a method 1) Observe 2) Hypothesize 3) Test 4) Conclusions 5) Evaluate  Step 1- Observe: Observe some phenomenon (curiosity, variables, theory)  Curiosity- Critically thinking psychology (want to know how or why something is)  Variable- Anything that a change  Theory- Broad idea or set of related ideas attempt to explain observation  Step 2- Hypothesize: Formulate hypotheses and predictions (testable prediction, derived from theory)  Step 3- Test through empirical research (operational definition of variables, analyze data using statistical procedures)  Operational definition- An objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed  Step 4- Draw Conclusions (replication of results, reliability)  Repeat of study to prove results to be reliable  Step 5- Evaluate the theory (change the theory; peer review and publication; meta-analysis)  Meta-analysis: A statistical procedure summarizes a large body of evidence from the research literature on a topic Descriptive Research  Goal: Describing a phenomenon  Observation, surveys and interviews; case studies  Case studies- An in-depth look at a single individual  Does not answer questions about why things are the way they are  Correlational Research  Goal: Identify relationships  Correlation coefficient: r (-1.00 & +1.00)  Strength of relationship: magnitude  Direction of relationship: +/-  Definition: Relations between two variables Scatter Plots  Positive correlation: The longer the lecture, the more yawns [factors vary in same direction]  Negative correlation: Factors vary in opposite direction [The longer the lecture, the lower student attentiveness] Correlation and Causation  Correlation does not equal causation  Any combination of the above maybe true or false  A correlation does not settle why behavior occurs  Third variable problem- A variable that has been measured accounts for the relationship Experimental Research  Goal: Determine Causation  Random assignment to groups  Experimental Group: Hypothesized cause is manipulated (Independent Variable)  Control Group: Treated equally, except no manipulation  Observe/Measure any effects  Different between groups (Dependent Variable)  Random assignment: Researchers assign participants to group by chance Validity  External Validity- The degree which an experimental design actually reflects the real-world issues it is supposed to address. (Representation of real world issues; generalize to real world)  Internal Validity- Changes in dependent variable due to manipulation of independent variable. Bias and Expectations  Experimenter bias- Experimenter’s expectations influence results of research.  Demand characteristics- Study that communicate to participants what they want them to do.  Research participants bias- Influence participants’ expectations; thoughts on behavior.  Placebo effect- Participants’ expectations produce outcome.  Double-blind experiment- Researcher nor participant know about experiment or control group. Research Sample  Populations: Entire group about whom conclusion is to be drawn  Sample: Portion of population observed  Representative Sample: Characteristics similar to population; opposite of “biased sample”  Random Sample: Each individual of population has equal chance of selection. Research Settings  “Artificial World”- Laboratory Setting  Controlled setting  “Real World”- Natural Setting  Naturalistic observation- Behavior in the real world Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Statistics: Mathematical methods used to report data  Descriptive: Describe/summarize  Inferential: Draw conclusions  Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, Mode  Measures of Dispersion: Range, Standard Division (Each score subtracted by mean)  Inferential Statistics: Draw conclusions  Bridge between sample and population  Statistical Significance- Chance of true based on confidence Research Ethics  Research participants have rights  APA Guidelines 1) Informed consent 2) Confidentiality 3) Debriefing (Deceive) 4) Deception  Institutional Review Board (IRB)


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