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Bio 121, Week 1 notes

by: Maddie German

Bio 121, Week 1 notes Bio 121

Marketplace > Purdue University > Bio 121 > Bio 121 Week 1 notes
Maddie German


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About this Document

These notes are over the lecture diversity of life
General Biology I
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie German on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 121 at Purdue University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
How many Species? (1.9 million) Total Diversity: 8.7 million (6.5 million on land and 2.2 million in ocean) A. 10,000 Bacteria a. ½ → 6% on land in tropic forest b. Increased rate of extinction c. Biological diversity is important i. Greed → diversity is important resource for humans ii. Free market → products include environmental cost iii. Moral → destroying environment is wrong 1. ½ of earth should be conserved B. Classify Life a. Taxonomy: naming/classifying life b. Systematics: evolving/genetic relationship i. Kingdom, phylum,class,order,family,genus, species c. Genus: a group of related species d. Tree of life → lets you predict C. Molecular phylogeny (evolutionary history of a group) a. Proteins and nucleic acids ( tape measure of evolution) i. differences/ similarities in amino acids  b. 4 characteristics of molecules i. Universally distributed ii. Functionally similar in all organisms iii. Homologous parts of molecule iv. Molecule changes: broader distances of change =  slower distance of change c. DNA is more sensitive marker → nucleotides change more quickly D. 5 kingdoms a. Cellular structure b. How they eat i. Monera: all bacteria 1. Prokaryotic: varied nutrition ii. Protirita 1.  eukaryote: varied nutrition iii. Plants 1. Photosynthesis  2. Cellulose cell wall iv. fungi 1. Decomposers 2. Chitin cell wall v. Animals 1. Particulate food 2. No cell wall Eukaryote Prokaryotae (Monera) Reproduction Sexual and asexual asexual Organelles nucleous none Circular Chromosomes no yes E. 6th Kingdom a. Biochemical evidence to split monera b. Archaebacteria: i. Live in extreme environment c. Eubacteria i. Live in normal environment F. Domains: sequence by ribosomal RNA a. This is a way to look at evolution b. They're universal, functionally constant and slow to change c. Domain → bacteria: Archaea and Eukarya i. *phenotype = expressed characteristics ii. Can't tell you much between 2 organisms G. Requirements for life a. Metabolism: all chemical reactions in organisms. Storage and use  of energy b. Reproduction: continue form over time c. Genetics: must pass generation to generation d. Evolution: need ability to change (form / features) e. Growth (development): how populations grow f. Adaptation: respond to the environment i. Abiotic (non living part) Biotic (living part) H. Solutions a. Diversity: diff combination of characteristics to solve problems b. Common: i. Ability to copy DNA ii. Major metabolic pathways (glycolysis) iii. Genetic code (DNA encoded protein) c. DIfferent Solutions: i. Climate is stressful 1. Bacteria and fungi: create spores 2. Plants: go dormant 3. Animals: migrate/hibernate 4. Protozoan: cyst (protective stage) I. Nutrition a. All organisms need energy i. Autotrophy:  1. Self feeding 2. Make energy rich compounds from  inorganic compounds ii. Photoautotroph 1. Photosynthesis iii. Chemotroph 1. Use S and CO2 2. Break covalent bond of H2 H2 + S → H2S + Energy CO2 + 4H4 → CH4 + 2 H2O + Energy Iv. Heterotrophy: energy comes from organic source 1. Predation 2. Parasite 3. Detrivores (decomposers) ii. Facultative Heterotrophy: 1. Autotrophy and heterotrophy 2. Venus fly trap


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