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BIOL 201, Chapter 1 notes

by: Kayla Wisotzkey

BIOL 201, Chapter 1 notes BIOL 201-015

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > BIOL 201-015 > BIOL 201 Chapter 1 notes
Kayla Wisotzkey
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About this Document

Contains all of the important information from Chapter 1, including notes from the lecture and the textbook.
Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics
Cheryl D. Warren
Class Notes
Biology, Molecular




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 1  The seven characteristics of living systems: 1) Cellular organization: All organisms have one or more cells, which carry out basic  activities of living; cells contain a membrane 2) Ordered complexity: All living things are both complex and highly ordered 3) Sensitivity: All organisms respond to stimuli; aka. a plant moving to face the sun 4) Growth, development, and reproduction: All organisms grow, reproduce, and pass on  hereditary information (Note: viruses are not living because they cannot reproduce  without a host cell) 5) Energy utilization: All organisms take in energy and perform work 6) Homeostasis: All organisms maintain constant internal conditions 7) Evolutionary adaptation: organisms evolve and adapt to their environment to survive  Biological hierarchy ­smallest to largest: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems,  population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere ­Ecosystem: the population plus the environment ­Biosphere: the entire planet ­Emergent properties: novel properties arising from the way in which components  interact; CANNOT be deduced solely from the knowledge of the individual components.  Basically, you have to look at the bigger picture and not just individual pieces of it.  Types of science  1) Discovery science: making new discoveries about the world/universe 2) Correlative science: using statistics and relationships to find out things that you can’t  ethically test 3) Experimental science: taking an observation and forming a hypothesis, then testing  that hypothesis to form a conclusion.   Types of reasoning ­Deductive reasoning: applies general principles to predict specific results; it is the  reasoning of mathematics and philosophy, and it is used to test the validity of general  ideas in all branches of knowledge ­Inductive reasoning: uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles;  leads to generalizations which can then be tested  Factors of an experiment ­independent variable: the variable that you alter for the experiment ­dependent variable: the variable that depends on the value of the independent variable ­control experiment: the variable is left unaltered  ­theory: 1) a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon, often based on a  general principle, 2) a body of interconnected concepts, supported by reasoning and  evidence, that explains facts of study. Note: theories are NOT proven!!  Charles Darwin  ­observed that although every organism has the potential to produce more offspring than  can survive, only a limited number actually do survive and produce offspring ­Natural selection: individuals possessing advantageous traits are more likely to survive  and reproduce than those with less advantageous traits ­the characteristics of similar species varied from place to place; lineages change  gradually as species migrate from one area to another  Cells and DNA ­cell theory: All living organisms consist of cells, and all cells come from pre­existing  cells and contain DNA ­Each DNA molecule is formed from 2 nucleotides wrapped around each other  ­gene: unit of information made up of thousands of nucleotides ­genome: entire set of DNA instructions that specifies a cell ­ALL organisms alive today have descended from a simple cellular creature ­cells process information by sensing the environment through proteins in their  membranes, which is transmitted across the cell membrane to chemical pathways, which  can react and change the cell function ­Homologous: have the same origin but differ in structure and function ­Analogous: have similar functions but different origins  Three domains: 1) Bacteria: single­celled 2) Archaea: single­celled 3) Eukarya: single or multiple­celled  Four Kingdoms: 1) Protista: unicellular eukaryotes, multicellular algae 2) Plantae: organisms with cellulose, use photosynthesis to make food 3) Fungi: have cell walls of chitin, obtain energy by secreting digestive enzymes and  then absorbing the products they release from the environment 4) Animalia: lack cell walls and obtain energy by ingestion and digestion  More important information: ­prokaryotes: single­celled, lack a nucleus and other organelles, the DNA is stored in the  nucleoid, the cell wall provides shape and protection ­eukaryote: single or multiple­celled, contains a nucleus (stores DNA) and other  organelles


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