BIOL 201, Chapter 1 notes
BIOL 201, Chapter 1 notes BIOL 201-015
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Wisotzkey on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 201-015 at Towson University taught by Cheryl D. Warren in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cell Biol & Genetics in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Kayla Wisotzkey Chapter 1 The seven characteristics of living systems: 1) Cellular organization: All organisms have one or more cells, which carry out basic activities of living; cells contain a membrane 2) Ordered complexity: All living things are both complex and highly ordered 3) Sensitivity: All organisms respond to stimuli; aka. a plant moving to face the sun 4) Growth, development, and reproduction: All organisms grow, reproduce, and pass on hereditary information (Note: viruses are not living because they cannot reproduce without a host cell) 5) Energy utilization: All organisms take in energy and perform work 6) Homeostasis: All organisms maintain constant internal conditions 7) Evolutionary adaptation: organisms evolve and adapt to their environment to survive Biological hierarchy smallest to largest: atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere Ecosystem: the population plus the environment Biosphere: the entire planet Emergent properties: novel properties arising from the way in which components interact; CANNOT be deduced solely from the knowledge of the individual components. Basically, you have to look at the bigger picture and not just individual pieces of it. Types of science 1) Discovery science: making new discoveries about the world/universe 2) Correlative science: using statistics and relationships to find out things that you can’t ethically test 3) Experimental science: taking an observation and forming a hypothesis, then testing that hypothesis to form a conclusion. Types of reasoning Deductive reasoning: applies general principles to predict specific results; it is the reasoning of mathematics and philosophy, and it is used to test the validity of general ideas in all branches of knowledge Inductive reasoning: uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles; leads to generalizations which can then be tested Factors of an experiment independent variable: the variable that you alter for the experiment dependent variable: the variable that depends on the value of the independent variable control experiment: the variable is left unaltered theory: 1) a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon, often based on a general principle, 2) a body of interconnected concepts, supported by reasoning and evidence, that explains facts of study. Note: theories are NOT proven!! Charles Darwin observed that although every organism has the potential to produce more offspring than can survive, only a limited number actually do survive and produce offspring Natural selection: individuals possessing advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than those with less advantageous traits the characteristics of similar species varied from place to place; lineages change gradually as species migrate from one area to another Cells and DNA cell theory: All living organisms consist of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells and contain DNA Each DNA molecule is formed from 2 nucleotides wrapped around each other gene: unit of information made up of thousands of nucleotides genome: entire set of DNA instructions that specifies a cell ALL organisms alive today have descended from a simple cellular creature cells process information by sensing the environment through proteins in their membranes, which is transmitted across the cell membrane to chemical pathways, which can react and change the cell function Homologous: have the same origin but differ in structure and function Analogous: have similar functions but different origins Three domains: 1) Bacteria: singlecelled 2) Archaea: singlecelled 3) Eukarya: single or multiplecelled Four Kingdoms: 1) Protista: unicellular eukaryotes, multicellular algae 2) Plantae: organisms with cellulose, use photosynthesis to make food 3) Fungi: have cell walls of chitin, obtain energy by secreting digestive enzymes and then absorbing the products they release from the environment 4) Animalia: lack cell walls and obtain energy by ingestion and digestion More important information: prokaryotes: singlecelled, lack a nucleus and other organelles, the DNA is stored in the nucleoid, the cell wall provides shape and protection eukaryote: single or multiplecelled, contains a nucleus (stores DNA) and other organelles
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