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Chemistry Week 1, Chapter 1 Notes

by: Sarah Notetaker

Chemistry Week 1, Chapter 1 Notes 109.0

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Madison > Chemistry > 109.0 > Chemistry Week 1 Chapter 1 Notes
Sarah Notetaker
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Chapter 1 Concepts
Advanced General Chemistry
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 109.0 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Hermans,Ive in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Advanced General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
  Introduction and Review    Chapter 1  The Nature of Chemistry  1.1: Why Care About Chemistry?  ● Chemistry­science of matter and transformations from one form to another  1.2: Clean Drinking Water  ● Arsenic poisoning  ● Abul Hussam invented SONO filter to remove arsenic from drinking water  1.3: How Science Is Done  ● Hypothesis­ idea that is tentatively proposed as an explanation for some observation  and provides basis for observation  ● Types of data  ○ Qualitative­ does not involve numbers  ○ Quantitative­ measuring and reporting numeric values  ● Law vs. Theory  ○ Scientific law­ statement that summarizes/explains a wide range of experimental  results and has not been contradicted  ○ Theory­unifying principle that explains facts and laws based on facts; suggests  new hypotheses and experiments  ■ Model­ makes theory more concrete  1.4: Identifying Matter: Physical Properties  ● Substance­ type of matter that has same properties and same composition throughout  ● Physical properties­can be observed and measured without changing composition of  substance  **1.4a: Physical Change  ● Changes in physical properties of a substance=physical changes (examples: melting,  boiling, grinding, hammering)  **1.4b: States of Matter  ● Physical state­solid, liquid, or gas  ○ Solid­ rigid shape; fixed volume  ○ Liquid­ fied volume; fluid­­takes shape of container  ○ Gas­fluid, but expands to fill container it occupies  **1.4c: Melting and Boiling Point  ● Melting point­temperature at which solid melts  ● Boiling point­ temperature at which liquid boils  ● Temperature­ property of matter   ○ Celsius temperature scale= 0 degrees=freezing point, 100 degrees is boiling  point (for pure water)  **1.4d: Density  ● Density­ratio of mass of a sample to its volume  ○ d=m/v (units: g/mL)  1.5: Measurements, Units, and Calculations    ● Measurement­ comparing quantity to be measured with a unit  ● Physical quantity­ result of measurement; consists of number and unit  ● Dimensional analysis­ method of using units in calculations to check for correctness  **1.5a: SI Units  ● International System of Units  ● SI base units:    Physical Quantity  Name of Unit   Symbol  Length  Meter  m  Mass  Kilogram  kg    Second  s    Kelvin  K    mole  mol    ampere  A    Candela  cd      ● SI prefix­ represent power of 10  **1.5b: Significant Digits and Rounding Numbers  ● Multiplication or division­same as number with fewest significant digits  ● Addition of subtraction­ same as number with smallest decimal places  **1.5c: Calculations Involving Density  ● Proportionality factor­ ratio whose numerator and denominator have different units but  refer to the same thing  ○ Type of conversion factor­enables us to convert unit to a different unit  **1.5e: Problem­Solving Strategy  1.6: Chemical Changes and Chemical Properties  ● Chemical change­ process in which one or more substances (reactants are transformed  into new substance(s) (Products)  **1.6a: Chemical Properties  ● Describe kinds of chemical reactions substance can undergo  **1.6b: Energy  ● Chemical reactions are accompanied by energy transfer   ● Energy­capacity to do work  1.7: Classifying Matter  ● Heterogeneous mixture­ mixture in which uneven texture of material can be seen with  naked eye or microscope    ● Homogeneous mixture (solution)­completely uniform mixture that consists of two or more  substances in same phase  **1.7a: Separation and Purification  ● Purified­ separated from all other substances  **1.7b: Detection and Analysis  1.8: Classifying Matter: Elements and Compounds  ● Chemical element­ cannot be changed by chemical reactions into two or more  substances  ● Compound vs. Mixture  ○ Compound has:  ■ Specific composition  ■ Specific properties  **1.8a: Types of Matter  ● Most difficult separation is elements in a compound  1.9: Nanoscale Theories and Models  ● Macroscopic­sample of matter large enough to be seen, measured, and handled  ● Microscopic­samples of matter so small that they have to be viewed with a microscope  ● Nanoscale­involves anything with at least one dimension smaller than about 100nm  **1.9a: Kinetic Molecular Theory  ● All matter consists of atoms or molecules that are in motion  1.10: The Atomic Theory  ● Atom­ smallest particle of an element that embodies chemical properties of that element  ● Molecule­ smallest particle of substance that exists independently and embodies  chemical properties of the substance  ● Chemical symbol­ one­ or two­ letter abbreviation for element name  ● Chemical formula­ symbols for atoms written together with subscripts  ● Law of conservation of matter (mass)­ no detectable change in mass during chemical  reactions  ● Law of constant composition­ chemical compound contains same elements in same  proportions by mass  ● Modern atomic theory assumes that:  ○ All matter is composed of atoms  ○ Atoms of given element have same chemical properties  ○ Compounds formed with chemical combination of 2+ different atoms  ○ A chemical reaction involves jointing, separating, or rearranging atoms  ● Law of multiple proportions­ compounds formed by combining atoms of different  elements on nanoscale )example: CO vs CO2)  1.11: Communicating Chemistry: Symbolism  ● Chemical formulas= how many atoms of elements are combined in a molecule and in  what ratios atoms are combined in compounds   1.12: The Chemical Elements  ● Vast majority of elements are metals  ● Nonmetals­usually do not conduct electricity    ● Metalloids­ properties of both metals and nonmetals; examples: B, Si, Ge, As, At, The  **1.12a: Groups of elements  ● Group 1: Alkali Metals  ● Group 2: Alkaline Earth Metals  ● Group 7: Halogens­ consist of diatomic molecules  ● Group 8: Noble Gases­unreactive  1.13 The Periodic Table  ● 118 elements known; 90 occur in nature  **1.13a: Periodic Table Features  ● Groups­ elements with same properties in vertical columns  ● Elements in A groups known as main­group elements/ representative elements  ● Elements in B group­ transition elements  ● Periods­ horizontal rows of periodic table  **1.13b: Transition elements, Lanthanoids, Actinoids  ● Transition elements­ fill middle of periodic table in periods 4­7  ● Lanthanides and actinides­ metallic elements listed separately at bottom of periodic table  **1.13 c: Other Representative Elements  ● Group 5A: Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P)  ● Group 6A: Important­ Oxygen (O)  1.14: the Biological Periodic Table  ● Building­block elements­ H, O, C, N  ● Biochemicals­ biologically significant chemicals  **1.14a: Dietary Minerals  ● Dietary minerals­ essential elements other than C, H, O, N  ● Major minerals­ presented in quantities greater than 0.01% of body mass  ● Trace elements­ present in quantities smaller than 0.01% of body mass         


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