GEOG 1010: Introductory Lecture Part 1 (Ch. 1)
GEOG 1010: Introductory Lecture Part 1 (Ch. 1) GEOG 1010
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Jim Norwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 265 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Introduction1 8/19/16 10:06 AM Terms To Know: • Timbuktu ○ Where is it located and why? § Mali, Africa in "The Bulge" 1. Spatial Criteria § North of Timbuktu is the Sah- last watering hole 2. Functional Interaction ○ Some interests among geographers are location, spatial relationships and connections between the environment and people 3. Transition Zones ○ Geographers seek to understand why different places have different sights, sounds, smells and arrangements of features 4. Spatial Change 5. Formal Region ○ Geographers often think on several scales from local to global 6. Functional Region • What is geography? 7. Hinterland ○ The study of our planets surface and the processes that shape it 8. Tectonic Plates ○ Geography is unique in that it links the physical science with social science 9. Subduction ○ Physical geographers have generally found • Realms are based on Spatial Criteria ○ The largest geographical unit into which the inhabited world can be divided ○ Based on both physical (natural) and human (cultural) yardsticks. ○ The result of the interaction between human societies and natural environments ○ Functional interaction § Revealed by farms, mines, fishing ports, transport routes, dams, bridges, villages and other features on the landscape. • Transition Zones** ○ Geographic realms change over time ○ Where 2 geographic realms meet, no sharp boundaries that mark their contact. • Spatial Change ○ An area where peripheries of 2 adjacent realms or regions join ○ Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish neighboring realms ○ Example- waking up after a night of drinking in Texas and not knowing if the culture is American or Mexican. § The Islamic Front- where Muslim North Africa and Christian/Tribal South Africa meet • Geographical Classification ○ Divide the world into realms- and those into regions § Example: Canada ->Provinces->Quebec- >Montreal (1.3 million mm) ○ Scale: ratio of map distance to the real-ldxpressed in fractions ○ 1 mm= 1 ft to the ground ○ Increased fraction means less territory, more territory= more detail • Regions ○ All regions have area, boundaries and location § Example: In the USA: the South, The North, The Midwest ○ Formal Region § Marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena Also called a uniform or homogeneous region § □ "Old Cotton Belt" in the South, or "Dairy Belt" in the Mid West United States ○ Functional Region § A spatial system focused on a central core § A region formed by a set of places and their functional integration § Also called a "nodal" region (defined by the organization of an activity about a central space) □ Example: Birmingham, AL ® Coal and Iron mining region, there's even a "Limestone County" • Hinterland** § Literally means "country behind" § A term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center § Urban center is the focus of goods and services, produced in the hinterland, and is the latter's dominant focal point as well • The Physical Setting ○ Natural Landscapes, Continental Dri, ectonic Plates**, Subduction ○ Earth is like a boiled egg - cracked by the rotation of the axis and the yolk (magma) rolling around inside. § Tectonic Plates move rapidly- fault lines are created □ One plate is heavier (ones with the ocean on top) than the other so they collide: □ Nazca Plate in South America is going underneath pla-ssubducting ® Creates more friction, causing more heat and surface of the South American plate to crack open into smaller fissgmowgna to rise up (now lava) through it and spew out the top as lava to create volcanoes. ® Has been creating the- The Andes for thousands of years □ The African Plate moves eastward, South American and North American plate are moving westward, they are all moving apart so w hen they hey de,t move about as fast as how long it takes your fingernail to grow. ® They open up and access magma ® In some places they have broken and the magma has come up abruptly, creating Iceland. ◊ Iceland is made up of several volcanoes -currently still erupting. } Two Types of Volcanoes – Explosive and Non -Explosive ◊ Every year the acreage of Iceland goes up - more land is being built every day Volcanic Hot-Spots § □ Around 100 around the world ® One is underneath the Hawaiian Islands, it stays there until the Pacific plate moves westward/northward until the ms up and explodes, builds up so much that it becomes an island. Th-spot stays where it is, the plate continues to move (not erupting), later t-hoot is generating another island, eventually makes a string of islands. ◊ Hawaiian islands formed like thi-sMaui, Kauai, Oahu • NEED TO KNOW: Different categories of climate from book!! ** • Climate/Precipitation ○ The South East (Auburn, AL ) gets around 50 inches of rain a year ○ Köppen- Geiger created a system in which to classify the climates of the world by letter, starting across the equator (letter A) § Af= No dry season § Am= Short, dry season § Aw= dry winter § BS= Semiarid § BW= Arid § Cf= No dry season § Cw= Dry winter § Cs= Dry summer § Df= No dry season § Dw= Dry winter § E= Tundra and ice § H= Unclassified highlands ○ (A= hot summer, B= cool sumer, C= short, cool summer, D= very cold winter) • Pacific Ring of Fire ○ Ring around the Pacific plate that houses recent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
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