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Biology 150, Chapter 2-4 Notes

by: RanjuD

Biology 150, Chapter 2-4 Notes Bio 150

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Bio 150 > Biology 150 Chapter 2 4 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by RanjuD on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 150 at University of North Dakota taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Questions to consider for exam 1  p.76­ 1,2 Ch. 2 Water & Carbon: The Chemical  Basis of Life:   Four atoms: hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen & oxygen  make 96% of all matter found in organisms  Central theme: "Structure affects function”  Proton:  positive charge  Electron: negative charge  Neutrons: Neutral charge  Atomic Number: the number of proton in an element  nucleus (used to define an element)  Atomic Mass:  total number of protons & neutrons in an element’s nucleus (an average mass of all  isotope)  The charge balances and makes an entire atom  electrically neutral when the # of protons and # of electrons in an atoms are the same  First electron shale: only hold two electron  Second electron shale: hold up to 8 electrons  Outermost Shale: “Valence Shale” reactions takes  place, also determines how many bonds atoms can  form with other atoms  Hydrogen doesn’t have neutrons  Covalent Bond: one or more pairs of electrons are  shared by two atoms. Sharing of an electrons ex.  (H+H =H2)  Ionic Bond: one or more electrons from one atom are removed and attached to another atom (positive &  negatives ions attract each other) o Cations: Positively charged atoms or molecules  o Anions: Negatively charged atoms or molecules o Cations & Anion attract one another   Hydrogen Bond: (“unzipping” of DNA, breaking of hydrogen  bonds which hold the two strands of the double helix  together  Carbon forms covalent bonds with 4 other atoms  pH: to illustrate the concentration of protons in  solution  Acid: Increases concentration of H+, (0­7)  Neutral: Water pH:7  Base: Decreases concentration of H+, donate a  hydrogen ion(H+) to another compound (7­14)  Alkali: soluble base, neutralization (production of water & salt) reaction between acid and base   Dissociation of Water:  o pH = measures of H+ concentration o Pure water: [H=] = 0.0000001 M (10^­7 M) o pH = ­log [H+]   Ch. 3 Proteins  Proteins: long chain of amino acid o Very important class of molecules  Enzymes  Antibodies  Movement  Structure  Transport across membrane  Polymers of amino acids o Information o Replication o Evolution  Our Body produces thousands if Amino acids but only 20 are commonly known as   Protein­­  macromolecules monomers­  large numbers from polymers link in the process we call  polymerization  Formed in within the cell­ Ribosomes­ small  structure found within living cells  Peptide bond: when amino acids are linked together  How are amino acids linked together? Amino acids linked together by a condensation  reaction which makes a peptide bond.  Condensation Reaction­ 2 monomers water is lost   fatty acids, lipids  Hydrolysis Reaction­­> breaks the chain of monomers  Where are proteins formed? o The “Central Dogma” of molecular biology:  explains the flow of genetic info from DNA to  RNA to make a protein BASIC  From existing DNA to make a new DNA “DNA  replication”  From DNA to make a new RNA (transcription)  From RNA to make new proteins (translation)  INDEPTH  DNA: contains info to make proteins   RNA: carries info to ribosomes  Ribosomes: translates info from a code into a  functional product  Gene Expression: DNA instruction converts into  functional product o Transcription: DNA info of every cell converted into small portable RNA messages o Translation: DNA messages travel from the  neucleus to ribosomes – read to make specific  proteins Levels of organizations are found in protein structure 1.Primary Structure­ sequence of amino acids in that  particular proteins­ all proteins have different  sequence of primary structure which makes them  unique 2.Secondary Structure: Alpha Helix­ helical shape Pleated Sheet: have segregated cardboard shape 3.Tertiary Structure: refers to overall three  dimensional configuration of protein. Many types of bonds involved in configuration, ex. Ionic bond,  covalent bond, disulfide  a.Also hold subunits together in a stable complex to form the complete protein 4.Quaternary Structure: “Hemoglobin Molecule” – the  number & arrangement of the individual polypeptide  chains, subunit of protein. a. Any 2 or more subunits working together is  called quaternary structure. Ch. 4 Nucleic Acids p.105 #1,6,7 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)­ 1953   In humans, in nucleus as 23 pairs of  chromosomes o 22 pairs of autosomes o 1 pair of sex chromosomes o XY = male o XX = female o DNA of 1 cell = approx.. 6ft  Stores genetic information and replicated by  using proteins  Consists of phosphates, sugar (deoxyribose),  nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine,  & Thymine – located in the interior   Nucleic Acid: are polymers, just as protein  polymers  Nucleotide: composed of five carbon ribose  sugar, phosphate molecule and one of four  nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine,  or uracil   Nucleotide are linked together to form a DNA as double helix – 2 strands are antiparallel  (orientated opposite direction)  Complimentary strand of:  o 5’­­­ ATTGGC­­­3’ o 3’­­­TAACCG­­­5’ o A always bond with T, G always bonds with  C  Nitrogenous Bases:  structural components, or  building blocks, of DNA and RNA o Purines: Adenine, Guanine o Pyrimidines: Cytosine (both RNA & DNA),  Thymine (DNA only), Uracil (RNA only)  Hydrogen bonds form between G­C and A­T pairs. Gene in DNA:  ­­­ATTCGA­­­ what is the sequence in the mRNA formed from gene  expression ­­­UAAGCU­­­ Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  very similar to DNA, except RNA is a single  stranded molecule  Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, & Uracil  Sugar: Ribose


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