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Ch. 3 BiologicalPsychology Notes

by: justin_1522

Ch. 3 BiologicalPsychology Notes PSY 1013

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These notes cover the important information we covered about chapter three in class.
General Psychology
Ashley Coleman
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by justin_1522 on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Coleman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Ch. 3 Biological Psychology  Heredity and Behavior  Genes are the basic units of heredity; they are found in the billions of human cells with a  nucleus.  Chromosomes are structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an  individual inherits.  Behavioral genetics is the study of how genes and environment influences behavior  Heredity­ A stat, expressed as a number between zero and one, that represents the degree to  which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior  or trait found in a population  Twin Studies  Twin Studies attempt to determine heritability of traits by studying monozygotic and dizygotic  twins that either been adopted or raised together  Monozygotic twins­ come from single ovary or egg, which makes them genetically identical  Dizygotic twins­ come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells that share  the same womb.  Behavioral genomics­ The study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the  environment, influence behavior  Epigenetics­ Study of how gene expression(switching genes off and on) is influenced by  interactions with the environment  Combinations of genes influence behavior, but inheritance of one or more genes does not  guarantee the development of a trait or behavior   No single gene determines behavior; however one gene can influence multiple traits  Evolutionary Psychology  Evolution­The change in the frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over  generations  Natural Selection­ A primary mechanism for evolutionary change, the process by which  favorable traits become increasing increasingly common in a population of interbreeding  individuals, while traits that are unfavorable become less common  Evolutionary Psychology recognizes the influence of the environment on behavior to the extent  that adaptive behavior is the relative to the environment  Neurons  Neurons­ One of the major types of cells found in the nervous system which is responsible for  sending and receiving messages throughout the body  The cell body(soma) contains the nucleus that houses the cell’s genetic material  Dendrites­ The small branches radiating from the cell body of a neuron that receives messages  from other cells and transmit the message toward the cell body  The axon transports information from the neuron to other neurons  Neural Communication  Neurotransmitters­ Chemicals that function as messengers within the body, thereby allowing  neurons to communicate with one another  Synapses­ A microscopically small space that separates individual individual nerve cells  Glial Cells­ Specialized Cells of the nervous system that are involved in manufacturing myelin,  mounting immune responses in the brain, removing wastes, and synchronizing activity of the  billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system  Glial Cells make myelin, which insulates axons: resulting in increased speed and efficiency of  neural communication  Resting potential­ inactive state during which the cell is not transmitting or receiving messages  Action potential­ A wave of electrical activity that originates at the base of the axon and rapidly  travels down its length; the firing of a nerve cell  Synaptic Cleft­ the minute space between the terminal button and the dendrite  Reuptake­ a process whereby neurotransmitter molecules that have been released into the  synapse are reabsorbed into the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron  Neurotransmitters vary in terms of the nerve cells they bind and their effects on behavior  Drugs affect the chemical signaling that takes place between nerve cells  Agonists­ Drugs that enhance or mimic the effects of neurotransmission  Antagonists­ Drugs that inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the receptors for or synthesis of  the neurotransmitter  The Endocrine System  Hormones­ Chemicals produced by the endocrine system that regulate bodily functions and  behavior  The pituitary glands(the master gland) produce hormones and sends commands about hormone  production to the other glands of the endocrine system  The hypothalamus­ a brain structure that regulates basic biological needs and motivational  systems  Peripheral Nervous System  The PNS­ transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body  The PNS is divided into the somatic system and the autonomic system  Somatic System­ includes the nerves that receive sensory input from the body and that control  skeletal muscles; it is responsible for voluntary and reflexive movement  Autonomic System­ responsible for controlling involuntary activity of the organs and glands  The Central Nervous System    The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord  The Spinal Cord connects the brain with the PNS  Messages are sent from the brain out to glands, muscles, and organs  Pathways also relay sensory information back to the brain  Hindbrain and Midbrain  Pons­helps regulate sleeping and dreaming   Medulla­ regulating breathing, heart rate,sneezing, salivating, and vomiting  Cerebellum­ involved in the details of movement, maintaining balance, and learning new motors  skills  Hindbrain­ Consists of structures that are critical to controlling basic life sustaining processes  Midbrain­ A region of the brain residing just above the hindbrain that primarily functions as a  relay station between sensory and motor areas  Spinal Cord­ the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of spinal column  The Basal Ganglia and Limbic System  Basal ganglia­ A set of forebrain structures involved in facilitating planned movements, skill  learning, and are also integrated with the brain’s reward system  Hippocampus­ A structure in the brain located below the amygdala in the limbic system; it is  responsible for learning and memory  Limbic Cortex­ apart of the limbic system; helps regulate motivation  Amygdala­ facilitates memory formation for emotional events  Cerebral Cortex  Frontal lobe­ involved in higher cognitive functions, such as planning, regulating impulses and  emotion, language  production, and voluntary movement  Parietal lobe­responsible for the sense of touch and bodily awareness( behind the frontal lobe)  Occipital lobe­The areas of the cerebral cortex where visual information is processed  Temporal lobe­ responsible for the processing of sound, including language and music. Also  involved in recognizing faces and objects  Hemispheric Specialization( Left and Right)  Neuroplasticity  Neuroplasticity­ the capacity for the the brain to change over the course of the life span as the  result of individual experiences  The human brain grows and develops throughout the lifespan  The brain can repair itself after being damaged  What factors might promote neuroplasticity?  Treatment right away  What factors might hinder neuroplasticity?  Repeated head injuries, drugs  Measuring and Observing Brain Activity  The electroencephalogram measures brain activity that uses electrodes attracted to the scalp to  measure patterns of brain activity.  Functional MRI measures changes in blood flow, which is correlated with neural activity,  throughout the brain  Transcranial magnetic stimulation involves researchers sending an electromagnetic pulse to a  targeted region of the brain, which can either stimulate or temporarily disable it.     


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