Ch. 3 BiologicalPsychology Notes
Ch. 3 BiologicalPsychology Notes PSY 1013
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by justin_1522 on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Ashley Coleman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Ch. 3 Biological Psychology Heredity and Behavior Genes are the basic units of heredity; they are found in the billions of human cells with a nucleus. Chromosomes are structures in the cellular nucleus that are lined with all of the genes an individual inherits. Behavioral genetics is the study of how genes and environment influences behavior Heredity A stat, expressed as a number between zero and one, that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in a population Twin Studies Twin Studies attempt to determine heritability of traits by studying monozygotic and dizygotic twins that either been adopted or raised together Monozygotic twins come from single ovary or egg, which makes them genetically identical Dizygotic twins come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells that share the same womb. Behavioral genomics The study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the environment, influence behavior Epigenetics Study of how gene expression(switching genes off and on) is influenced by interactions with the environment Combinations of genes influence behavior, but inheritance of one or more genes does not guarantee the development of a trait or behavior No single gene determines behavior; however one gene can influence multiple traits Evolutionary Psychology EvolutionThe change in the frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generations Natural Selection A primary mechanism for evolutionary change, the process by which favorable traits become increasing increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals, while traits that are unfavorable become less common Evolutionary Psychology recognizes the influence of the environment on behavior to the extent that adaptive behavior is the relative to the environment Neurons Neurons One of the major types of cells found in the nervous system which is responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body The cell body(soma) contains the nucleus that houses the cell’s genetic material Dendrites The small branches radiating from the cell body of a neuron that receives messages from other cells and transmit the message toward the cell body The axon transports information from the neuron to other neurons Neural Communication Neurotransmitters Chemicals that function as messengers within the body, thereby allowing neurons to communicate with one another Synapses A microscopically small space that separates individual individual nerve cells Glial Cells Specialized Cells of the nervous system that are involved in manufacturing myelin, mounting immune responses in the brain, removing wastes, and synchronizing activity of the billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system Glial Cells make myelin, which insulates axons: resulting in increased speed and efficiency of neural communication Resting potential inactive state during which the cell is not transmitting or receiving messages Action potential A wave of electrical activity that originates at the base of the axon and rapidly travels down its length; the firing of a nerve cell Synaptic Cleft the minute space between the terminal button and the dendrite Reuptake a process whereby neurotransmitter molecules that have been released into the synapse are reabsorbed into the axon terminals of the presynaptic neuron Neurotransmitters vary in terms of the nerve cells they bind and their effects on behavior Drugs affect the chemical signaling that takes place between nerve cells Agonists Drugs that enhance or mimic the effects of neurotransmission Antagonists Drugs that inhibit neurotransmissions by blocking the receptors for or synthesis of the neurotransmitter The Endocrine System Hormones Chemicals produced by the endocrine system that regulate bodily functions and behavior The pituitary glands(the master gland) produce hormones and sends commands about hormone production to the other glands of the endocrine system The hypothalamus a brain structure that regulates basic biological needs and motivational systems Peripheral Nervous System The PNS transmits signals between the brain and the rest of the body The PNS is divided into the somatic system and the autonomic system Somatic System includes the nerves that receive sensory input from the body and that control skeletal muscles; it is responsible for voluntary and reflexive movement Autonomic System responsible for controlling involuntary activity of the organs and glands The Central Nervous System The CNS consists of the brain and the spinal cord The Spinal Cord connects the brain with the PNS Messages are sent from the brain out to glands, muscles, and organs Pathways also relay sensory information back to the brain Hindbrain and Midbrain Ponshelps regulate sleeping and dreaming Medulla regulating breathing, heart rate,sneezing, salivating, and vomiting Cerebellum involved in the details of movement, maintaining balance, and learning new motors skills Hindbrain Consists of structures that are critical to controlling basic life sustaining processes Midbrain A region of the brain residing just above the hindbrain that primarily functions as a relay station between sensory and motor areas Spinal Cord the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of spinal column The Basal Ganglia and Limbic System Basal ganglia A set of forebrain structures involved in facilitating planned movements, skill learning, and are also integrated with the brain’s reward system Hippocampus A structure in the brain located below the amygdala in the limbic system; it is responsible for learning and memory Limbic Cortex apart of the limbic system; helps regulate motivation Amygdala facilitates memory formation for emotional events Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe involved in higher cognitive functions, such as planning, regulating impulses and emotion, language production, and voluntary movement Parietal loberesponsible for the sense of touch and bodily awareness( behind the frontal lobe) Occipital lobeThe areas of the cerebral cortex where visual information is processed Temporal lobe responsible for the processing of sound, including language and music. Also involved in recognizing faces and objects Hemispheric Specialization( Left and Right) Neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity the capacity for the the brain to change over the course of the life span as the result of individual experiences The human brain grows and develops throughout the lifespan The brain can repair itself after being damaged What factors might promote neuroplasticity? Treatment right away What factors might hinder neuroplasticity? Repeated head injuries, drugs Measuring and Observing Brain Activity The electroencephalogram measures brain activity that uses electrodes attracted to the scalp to measure patterns of brain activity. Functional MRI measures changes in blood flow, which is correlated with neural activity, throughout the brain Transcranial magnetic stimulation involves researchers sending an electromagnetic pulse to a targeted region of the brain, which can either stimulate or temporarily disable it.
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