PSYC 1010: Chapter 1 (Weeks 1-2)
PSYC 1010: Chapter 1 (Weeks 1-2) PSYC 2010
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010 at Auburn University taught by Lucia Lazarowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chapter 1: The Scienceof Psychology 8/17/16 10:36 AM The Science of Psychology • What is Psychology? ○ The study of the mind, brain and behavior § Mind= thinking, intelligence, memories § Brain= actual biological and anatomical functions that cause mental activity § Behavior= social interaction, aggression, an action ○ Psychology is a science § Not philosophica- as much of a science as chemistry, physics, biology, ect § Based on empirical evidence (evidence gathered through careful observation and experiment) □ Anecdotal evidence - not truly scientific □ Anything that is not empirical evidence is not reliable ® Example: self -help books, palm readings □ Astronomy and Psychology are science -snot fields like Astrology • What does a Psychologist do? ○ Studies mental activity and behavior ○ They are not.. Mind readers § § Mind controllers • Critical Thinking ○ Questioning information using well -supported evidence ○ "Amiable Skepticism" § Open but wary about the information until there is evidence ○ False information that people believe § MMR vaccine/Autism scandal § Baby Mozart § Most articles shared on Facebook • Personality Traits ○ Type A & B personalities • Biases In Thinking ○ Our brains seek patterns often when they don't exist Example: leak in Always Sunny looked like the Virgin Mary § ○ Influenced by expectations § Examples: horoscopes and fortune cookies ○ Overemphasize coincidences § Example: superstitions □ Pre-show rituals for roc-stars ○ Confirmation Bias § Selectively attend to evidence that confirms to our beliefs □ Example: following only Conservative or Liberal news outlets ○ Hindsight Bias § "I knew it all along" effect § Once we know the outcome, we think we would have predicted it □ Example: saying that you knew that Alabama would win the Iron Bowl, even though you had no idea during the game. ○ Self-Serving Bias § Overconfidence □ Example: when we get a good grade it's because we're smart or studied hard, if it happens to someone else they ghe lucky or t teacher likes them more. History Of Psychology ○ History ○ Originated in philosophy § Aristotle, Plato, Confucius ○ Not very scientific ○ Causes Of Behavior ○ What makes someone a good athlete? § genetics, motivation, physical traits ○ What makes someone intelligent? § practice, hard Work, time management ○ What determines personality? § environment, life events, brain chemistry ○ What causes mental disorders? § chemical in -balance, genetics, trauma • Nature vs. Nurture ○ Nature: inherited traits ○ Nurture: experiences, education, culture § Examples: Mark Zuckerberg □ Nature: parents were intelligent, "born smart" □ Nurture: good upbringing and school system ○ Not a debate anymore, both are connected and impossible to separate • Schools Of Thought ○ Experimental Psychology § Depart from philosophy and become a science of observation and experimentation § Wilhelm Wundt □ 1st psychology lab (1879) □ Studied reaction time □ Developed method of introspection- inspecting and reporting on one's own internal thoughts ○ Structuralism § Studying the underlying components of mental experience □ Example: what is fear? ® arousal, behavior, cognition ○ Functionalism § William James § Criticized Structuralism □ Mind consists of a tream of consciousnes can't be broken down into elements ® It's purpose is more important □ "What is the function of fear?" ® Is fear ever dysfunctional? ◊ Yes, when they interfere with our daily lives § Examine the functions served by the mind □ The mind evolved for preserving life □ Helps humans adapt to environmental demands □ Influenced by Charles Darwin's Evolutionary Theory ○ Gestalt Theory § The whole is different from the sum of it's parts □ Example: picture of dots that the brain perceives as a dog § Perception of objects □ Subjective □ Depends on context ○ Psychoanalytic Theory § Sigmund Freud □ Doctor who was interested about his patients with neurological disorders with no medical reasons □ Behavior caused by mental processes below conscious awareness ® Urges repressed into the unconscious ® Sexual motives and childhood experiences □ Theories not testable largely unaccepted ® Example: fears stem from repressed unconscious conflict ◊ Freud's analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy ("Little Hans") ○ Behaviorism § Study of observable mental processes □ Study of unobservable processes is not scientific § Emphasized environment's effects on behavior Believed all behaviors are learned (nurture) § □ Example: fears develop through experiences ® John Watson's "Little Albert" experiment ○ Cognitive Psychology § Behavior is more complex, mental functions matter □ Perceptions, expectations, thinking ® Example: fears are due to irrational perceptions, dysfunctional thoughts ◊ Someone who is scared that every cat will scratch their eyes out Human Behavior Today • How do we study human behavior today? Modern psychologists use different levels of analysis ○ § Biological □ What are the biological roots of the behavior? □ Example: Why did John punch his sister? ® John's hormones (testosterone) or brain chemistry (amygdala) or evolution (males evolved to be more aggressive than females) caused him to be aggressive. Individual § □ How is a person's specific personality affecting behavior? □ Example: Why did John punch his sister? ® John's developmental (corporal punishment)or cognitive( cognitive hostile bias) or personality (type A or B) caused him to be aggressive. § Social- Cultural □ How does society/culture affect behavior? □ Example: Why did John punch his sister? ® Interpersonal skills, relationships, Southern "culture of honor", exposure to violent media caused him to be aggressive. • Modern Psychology's Major Subfields ○ Neuroscience § Brain imaging (CT scans) ○ Cognitive § Thinking, mental processes ○ Developmental § Child psychologists, adolescent psychologists, studies of people through time, aging of the elderly ○ Social § Romantic relationships, families ○ Clinical and Counseling § Research and treating patients with more common problems ○ Industrial Organizational (IO) § Behaviors like how the work place affects us, ergonomics, interview/managing skills Specialty Areas ○ § Forensic § Sports § Health § Animal Behavior
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