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Microbiology: Chapter 3 - Prokaryotes

by: Savannah Carter

Microbiology: Chapter 3 - Prokaryotes Bio 221

Marketplace > College of Western Idaho > Biology > Bio 221 > Microbiology Chapter 3 Prokaryotes
Savannah Carter

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These are notes taken in the third week of class. Topics include characteristics of bacteria and archaea
Teresa Rich
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Carter on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 221 at College of Western Idaho taught by Teresa Rich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at College of Western Idaho.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Microbiology: Chapter 3 – Bacteria and Archaea  Prokaryotes Form and Function o Distinguishing Characteristics  The way DNA is packaged  No nucleus  No histones  Make-up of the Cell Wall  Bacteria have peptidoglycan  Archaea have  Internal Structures  No membrane-bound organelles o Cell Structure  All prokaryotes  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  Plasma membrane  Nucleoid containing DNA  Some prokaryotes (but not all)  Flagella  Fimbriae  Inclusion  Pilus  Capsule  Cell wall  Plasmid o Shapes  Cocci  round balls  Bacilli  rods  Vibrio  comma shape  Spirilium  rigid corkscrew with flagella  Spirochete  flexible corkscrew o Arrangements  Cocci  each one is separate  Diplococci  pair of two  Streptococci  string  Tetrad  square of four  Sarcinae  cube of eight  Staphylococci  grape-like group  Bacilli  each one is separate  Diplobaccili  pair of two  Streptobacilli  string  Coccobacillus  short, fat rods (looks like a cocci)  External Structures o Appendages: Cell Extension  Accessory structures  Not all species have them  Extend outside of the cell  Two main functions  Motility  Attachment o Glycocaylx  “sugar cup”  Composed of carbohydrates  Two functions  Preventing the cell from being phagocytized  Helps the cell stick to things  Two forms  Capsule  protection  Slime layer  attachment o Forms biofilms o Flagella  Allow for motility  Embedded in the cell wall  Monotrichus – just one  Lophotricus – many out of one end  Amphitricus - many out of both ends  Peritricus - all over the cell  Endoflagella  Wrapped around the cell  Seen only in spirochetes  When it spins, it spins the entire cell  Chemotaxis  “chemical movement”  Positive: the bacteria is moving toward something it wants  Negative: the bacteria is moving away from something bad  Run: movement in one straight line direction  Tumble: random spinning and rolling, trying to change directions o Fimbriae: Used to attach to other cells and surfaces o Pili: Grab other bacteria to exchange genetic material  Cell Envelope o Complex external covering of the cell o Composed of cell membrane, cell wall, and outer membrane o Gram Stain  Different groups of bacteria stain different colors  Steps  1. Apply Crystal Violet (purple)  stains both + and –  2. Apply Iodine  trapped in +  3. Apply Alcohol  breaks outer membrane of – (purple leaves - )  4. Apply Safranin  stains – o The Cell Wall  Composed of carbohydrates and peptidoglycan (amino acids)  Gram Positive  Lipotochoric acid  Thick peptidoglycan wall  Contains mycholic acid o A wax that doesn’t stain easily o Pathogenic to humans o Must use acid-fast stain  Gram Negative  Thin peptidoglycan wall between cell membrane and outer membrane  Outer Membrane o Similar to cellular membrane o Contains Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)  Endotoxin (inside the cell)  Stimulates fever and shock o Only allows very small molecules through  Naturally resistant to some antibiotics o Cell Membrane  Phospholipid Bilayer  Hydrophilic heads on the outside  Hydrophobic tails inside  Function  Provides a place for some processes to take place  Regulates what goes in and out of the cell  Internal Structures o Contents of Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm  Jelly, mainly water  Chromosomes and Plasmids  Contain DNA  Found in nucleoids  Plasmids contain “superhero genes” o Resistance to antibiotics, toxins o Make the cell stronger  Ribosomes  Make proteins using DNA  Composed of protein and RNA  Sizes o Large subunit = 50 S o Small subunit = 30 S o Ribosome = 70 S o A eukaryotic ribosome = 80 S  Inclusions and Granules  Stores of extra food, gas, or waste  Cytoskeleton  Some bacteria have them  Actin filaments and microtubules o Bacterial Endospores  Function  Help bacteria survive heat, radiation, drying, and lack of food  One of the most resistant forms of life  Are not reproductive  Formation  Vegetative Stage: growing, eating, reproducing o One vegetative cell forms one endospore  Endospore Stage: resting and surviving o One endospore forms one vegetative cell  Germination  Caused by water, the presence of food, boiling  One endospore forms one vegetative spore  After endospore formation is complete, the vegetative cell’s DNA is degraded  The endospore is wrapped in protective layers  Archaea o Closely related to eukaryotes o Single, circular chromosomes o 70 S ribosomes o Cell membrane is a lipid monolayer  One long chain with a hydrophobic tail on the end o Do not contain peptidoglycan o Found in the same places as bacteria  Classification Systems o Bergey’s Manual  Systematic Bacteriology  Combines phenotype with ribosomal RNA sequencing  Determinative Bacteriology  Based only on phenotype o Taxonomic Schemes  Gracilicutes  “delicate or thin”  Gram negative  Firmicutes  “firm or thick”  Gram positive  Tenericutes  Do not have a cell wall  Mendosicutes  Archaea  Unusual cell walls o Species and Subspecies  Species: a collection of cells that share an overall pattern of traits  Share 70-80% of their genes


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