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ART 221 Notes Week 2 Day 3

by: Cassidy_SWK2018

ART 221 Notes Week 2 Day 3 Art 221

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Notes on Ancient Egypt
Honors Art History Survey I
Dr. Beth Mulvaney
Class Notes
ancient egypt
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Art 221 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Beth Mulvaney in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Honors Art History Survey I in Art at Meredith College.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
ART 221 9-1-16 **See Art 101 ppt** War, Peace, and the Authorial vision in Ancient Egypt 1. Egypt is polytheistic and they believe the soul is eternal, so their tombs are elaborate and meant for the souls or ka to occupy 2. Ancient Egypt a. Art i. Rosetta stone 1. Key to deciphering hieroglyphics 2. Inscriptions in: a. Greek i. Easily read b. Demotic i. Late Egyptian c. Hieroglyphic b. Predynastic period i. Palette of Narmer, ca. 3000-2920 BCE 1. Animal heads intertwine around a depression a. They would grind minerals for makeup i. Used on their eyes to protect from the sun 2. Back of pallete a. Figure of narmer i. Profile legs and hips ii. Sets precedent for convention of depicting pharaoh 1. Allows them to showcase the strength of the king iii. Wearing the crown of upper Egypt, he’s about to kill his enemy iv. Enemy is naked v. b. Behind Narmer, servant is carrying sandals i. Facing Narmer is a hieroglyph representing him as Horus, a god and Egyptian pantheon 1. Horus has a tether; he has captured a sphinx which represents lower Egypt ii. The lower register has enemies he’s conquered c. on the top are horned cows i. Hathor the goddess ii. With it, a hieroglyph spelling Narmer (fish) and representation of the palace b/c he’s encased in the palace as king 3. Front of pallete a. Again with cows, Narmer is protected and has divine right to rule b. Narmer is wearing crown of Lower Egypt i. Again attended by servant c. In front are standard bearers for army d. Dead bodies with heads between legs i. Aerial viewpoint for clarity e. Very center where make up would be ground (mythical animals) i. They’re tethered ii. Might be a symbol of the unification of upper and lower Egypt f. Bottom register i. Goddess or Narmer as goddess Hathor destroying enemies, looking at fortress of city 4. Designed for things to be legible and clear c. Ancient Egypt: old kingdom i. Imhotep, deified after death ii. Art 1. Imhotep, stepped pyramid of King Djoser, Saqqara, ca. 2630-2611 BCE a. Sham buildings i. Building fronts with nothing behind them ii. Memorializing building details of the everyday world 1. Egyptians built out of vegetal matter 2. They are memorialized in stone so they last forever a. You can see design to look like lotus and others 3. Had stone quarry to use stone for building a. Excellent and precise stone cutters b. Mastaba i. Slope-sided rectangular slab placed over top of a subterranean tomb ii. Tomb of King Djoser made up of elaborate corridors to include riches which provide entertainment for the ka c. Pyramid shape was born from the idea of the Sun god 2. Great Pyramids of Giza ca. 2550-2475 BCE a. Final layers were polished limestone so they were originally smooth i. Smooth was taken for other buildings revealing roughness b. Gold top that sparkled in sun to reference sun god c. Four corners for four directions d. Planning and design i. Raised corridor ii. Masatabas around Cheops iii. Many corridors through them that were elaborate to thwart grave robbers 1. Robbers burrowed straight in iv. Don’t know how pyramids were built other than with slaves 3. Seated statue of Khafre, from Giza, ca. 2520-2494 BCE a. 5’ 3/8” b. Idealized as youthful and powerful c. Stone used is dyrite i. Very durable, best they could find b/c he’s a king d. Sitting reminds of block it was cut from e. Keeps form into eternity b/c ka will reside here f. Wears kilt and folded headdress g. Bird (Horus) wrapped around head i. He is divine and has divine protection h. Lotus and papyrus at bottom for unification of upper and lower Egypt i. Temple had a skylight above it so that when the sun shines on the statue it had a blue radiance 4. Menkaura and a queen, ca. 2490-2472 BCE a. Sort of striding position but still rigid in block of stone so nothing is broken and ka can reside b. Queen has arms around pharaoh but still rigid and formal, not realistic 5. Seated scribe from a mastaba tomb at Saqqara, ca. 2500 BCE a. Wooden core covered with painted limestone b. Realistic b/c he’s not the king (still important though) c. Wearing kilt with scroll and originally had a stylus d. Not very muscular e. Belly represents that he is wealthy and has access to food 6. Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, relief in mastaba of TI, Saqqara, ca. 2450-2350 BCE a. Ti is not king but very important b. Hierarchical figure (too large for boat) c. Curving lines for water d. Different fish e. Hippopotami i. Smaller so Ti is biggest and so they don’t take so much room f. Team of workman hunting g. Grooves in material are papyrus reeds extending and flowering h. Foxes hunting at top along with other flowers and birds i. Fish and hippopotami are detailed and well represented i. Ti is more abstract j. Ti isn’t doing anything k. Servants are in movement and more realistic than Ti l. Ti is the only abstract and idealized figure, rest is very realistic m. Hippopotami are disorganized i. Ran through and destroyed crops ii. May depict good/evil, order/chaos 7. Goats reading seed and cattle fording a canal a. Servant separating a calf i. Servant is realistically bent over ii. Mom cow mooing iii. Baby whips head around to see mom b. Much truer to realism d. Middle Kingdom i. Rock-cut tomb at Beni Hasan, ca. 1900-1880 BCE 1. Hidden to thwart thieves 2. Still decorated richly 3. We know it’s rock because there’s a missing column but it hasn’t collapsed e. New kingdom i. Funerary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri, ca. 1473- 1458 BCE 1. Daughter of a king, her brother inherited the throne, she married him (half-brother), his young son took over and then she took over after a year 2. She ruled Egypt for two decades 3. Sometimes she is represented as a male but sometimes as a female 4. Painted reliefs show her birth, coronation, and great deeds and divine right to rule 5. Series of collimated ramps 6. Originally had draping plants as lush garden 7. Sculptures placed throughout temple (at top) 8. Near the Nile 9. Sculptures were probably painted to be more visible ii. Reconstruction of the Great Temple of Amun-Re, Karnak, ca. 15 - th th 13 centuries BCE 1. Wall was 26 ft. thick 2. Sealing in religious sanctuary with artificial lake 3. Has axial approach and longitudinal axis (straight on ( 4. Pylon temple is slope wall entrance 5. Each room as you go through is increasingly private and guarded a. Only priests allowed at back in the sanctuary 6. Hypostyle hall, ca. 1290-1224 BCE a. Central columns are taller than side columns to allow light i. Windows here allow light (clerestory) b. Top of flower capitals are 30 ft. across c. Held together by precision and gravity iii. Fowling scene (tomb of Nebamun), Thebes, ca. 1400-1350 BCE 1. Fresco painting, painting on wet plaster a. Egyptians painting on dry plaster i. Normally that would ruin it ii. Dry climate and sealed in tombs kept them in shape 2. Very real nature in scene, easily identifiable, but Nebamun is idealized iv. Musicians and dancers (tomb of Nebamun) Thebes, ca. 1400- 1350 BCE 1. Sense of movement with curvilinear overlapping poses of dancers 2. Musicians’’ hair has much texture a. Frontal facing (experiment for artist) 3. Vocab a. Low relief b. Hierarchical scale c. Register d. Subtractive sculpture i. Artist begins with block and subtracts to create image THINK ABOUT CONTEXT AND FUNCTION!


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