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Class Notes 9-6

by: Mina Hubert

Class Notes 9-6 PSYC 33000-01

Mina Hubert
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Notes taken in class on 9-6
Brandy Bessette-Symons
Class Notes
neurons, cognition, neuropsychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mina Hubert on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 33000-01 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bessette-Symons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Cognition in Psychology at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Class Notes 9-6-16 Representation in the Brain  The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so we can see within it to achieve our goals Ex: when you see a tree your retinas are taking in light that is reflected off the tree (sensory receptors) causing action potentials to fire and the image is sent to the brain and that’s when you ‘see’ the tree (visual cortex).  Hubel and Wiesel (1965) - Won Nobel Prize in 1981 - They researched what neurons responded best to specific qualities of a stimulus (feature detector) - Subjects were shown rectangles on a screen that varied in three ways 1. Orientation 2. Movement 3. Size - Results: a. Simple cells respond when one feature is shown (orientation) b. Complex cells respond when two features are shown (orientation and movement) c. Hyper complex cells respond to all 3 features happening at once (orientation, movement, and size) Hierarchical Processing  Visual Processing - Simple visual stimuli only pass through the ‘lower areas’ of the brain – visual cortex - The more complex the visual stimulus the ‘higher’ it moves in the brain – Temporal and occipital lobes - Each areas function adds to the complexity of perception  Desimone (1984) - Studied neurons in primates brains while they were shown visual stimuli - Found that a certain neuron activated for hands that didn’t activate for other things  It didn’t matter how basic or detailed the hand was as long as the fingers were there. Once the fingers were taken away (imagine a mitten) the neurons no longer fired. - Sensory code: how neurons represent various characteristics of the environment  How are we able to tell one face from another? Theories: - Specificity Coding: one neuron fires for each face. Only one cell responds to each different face  Not really any support for this. The brain does have a LOT of neurons but there aren’t enough for a single neuron to respond to every single visual stimulus we ever see - Population coding: pattern across a large number of neurons  Many neurons are activated for each face (visual stimulus) that we see, but certain neurons respond more strongly.  Explains senses and cognitive functions such as working memory - Sparce Coding: pattern across a small number of neurons  Some neurons are activated for each face (visual stimulus) we see, but certain neurons respond more strongly.  Explains complex stimuli perception and memories Localization of Function - Localization of function: specific brain areas lead to specific functions - Most cognitive functions reside in the cerebral cortex  Sulci: valleys in the brain  Gyri – bumps in brain  How do we localize functions? - Neuropsychology: the study of cases of brain injury - Brain imaging technology  Language - Language production (speech) is impaired by damage to Brocas area and is called non-fluent aphasia  Caused by damage to Brocas area – in frontal lobe  Causes difficulty in producing speech  Individuals who suffer from non-fluent aphasia fully understand language, can read and write, and want to communicate verbally but they have difficult producing words  People with non-fluent aphasia often communicate by writing - Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wiernickes area and is called fluent aphasia  Caused by damage to Wiernickes area – in temporal lobe  Causes difficulty in speaking coherently  Individuals who suffer from fluent aphasia know what they want to say but the words come out as gibberish  Some individuals with fluent aphasia can understand others and simply can’t speak coherently while others can’t coherently speak and can’t understand others  Double dissociation - You are able to do task A but not task B and vice versa Ex: using the aphasia’s I wrote about above  People with non-fluent aphasia have difficulty producing words but they can speak clearly  People with fluent-aphasia can easily produce words but they are incoherent/come out as gibberish Perception  Penfield mapped out 2 gyri and what functions were localized there - Pre and post central gryus - Stimulated each area and observed what patients felt/where they moved  Primary receiving areas for the senses -occipital lobe: vision, visual cortex -parietal lobe: some sensory cortex, touch, temperature, pain -Temporal Lobe: hearing, auditory cortex - coordination of information received from senses  Association areas throughout the brain - Frontal Lobe: has large association areas that use information from all over the brain to achieve goals, plan movement, thinking, planning and problem solving Brain Basic: Cortex  Lobes receive other information besides sensory information - Occipital – vision - Parietal – attention, visual spatial - Frontal – speech production, motor execution, emotional regulation, executive functions - Temporal – auditory processing, language, comprehension, visual processing, memory formation Methods: Brain Imaging  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Structural images (very good resolution) - Goes voxel by voxel – like pixels in a TV  Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) - Measures blood flow through properties of blood  Iron in hemoglobin  Reduces oxygen increases magnetic response  Slow (5-8 jitters) temporal resolution  Subtraction technique used to measure Difference between activation determines what areas of the brain are activated during manipulation


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