Tuesday 09/13/16 Lecture Notes
Tuesday 09/13/16 Lecture Notes PSYC 1301
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Izabella Brock on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zarate in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at El Paso.
Reviews for Tuesday 09/13/16 Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/07/16
PSYC 1301 Septt13,,2016 Lecture Notes Class Info: • Quiz opens today (9/13) at noon and closes tomorrow at 11pm • If you have yet to do any Sona research experiments – you need to invest in doing them soon (www.utep.sona-systems.com) Class Notes: Neuroscience and Behavior (ch.2) • Why study the brain? o One step of a continuum of levels of analysis o Brain and behavior are intimately connected o Psychology, biology, neurology, and many more fields • Question. o False – Humans use only 10% of their brain § Different areas are active for distinct tasks, but every part of the brain has a function § Even small brain damage can produce behavior and personality change • Introduction: Neuroscience and Behavior o Sample questions studied by neurosciences o How do you tell the difference between red and blue, sweet and sour, loud and soft? o What exactly is a memory, and how are memories stored in the brain? o Why do you get hungry? How do emotions occur? o How does heredity influence your development? What role does genetics play in personality traits and psychological disorders? o What role does abnormal brain chemistry play in psychological disorders? How do medications alleviate the symptoms of serious psychological disorders? • How does one study the brain? o Without harming it § We have a relatively fragile skull o Can one study the brain without actually influencing the associated processes? § We used to call the brain the black box • Methods of Study o Brain damage patients § We find individuals with brain damage, such as concussions which can be found heavily throughout many sports players o Stimulation techniques o EEG/FMRI, PET, and a host of similar methods o Animal studies § Institutional review board makes it harder to do experiments on animals, as compared to experiments on humans PSYC 1301 Seppt133,20116 Lecture Notes o Drug studies • Brain damage research o From this comes Wernickes area (the ability to understand language) and Brocas (produce language) § In these studies do you include stroke patients? • Yes o Pro’s § Easily studied. We can begin to identify damage to particular areas with particular deficiencies § No need for invasive techniques. The invasive techniques have already occurred o Con’s § Rarely is damage limited to one particular area § Hard to say if damage to one area is causing it, or causing problems for functioning in another area § Gross (imprecise) method of research. Imagine taking a hammer and hitting your computer near the hard drive • Brain-Mapping Methods o Phrenology – early method (1800s) of linking mind and brain § Falsifiable o Cases of brain damage – studying brain function following damage § Naturally occurring damage in humans vs. experimentally-induced brain lesions in non-human animals o Electrical stimulation and recording of the nervous system § EEG § Good time measurement. Poor localization o Brain scans § CT and MRI – structural imaging § PET and fMRI – functional imaging § Great localization. Poor timing o Magnetic stimulation and recording § Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) • Electroencephalogram (EEG) o An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp • MRI Scan o MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue. Top images show ventricular enlargement in PSYC 1301 Seppt133,20116 Lecture Notes schizophrenic patient. Bottom shows brain region when participant lies. • Mapping the Mind o Three forms of evidence for concluding that the mind is the brain in action: § Brain activity changes with different behaviors and perception § Brain damage causes deficits in behavior and perception § Stimulation of the brain activates behavior and/or perceptions • Animal Studies o Either localized brain damage o Specific drugs o Precise measurement § Nice for the above reasons. One has control § How well will these effects replicate to humans? § How does one measure behavior • Neural Communication o Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information o Note the similarities in the above brain regions, which are all engaged in information processing • Drug studies o Often real life § Nicotine patches § Controlled § But also impact more than focal behavior § Limited in applicability and human subject approvals • Neural Communication o The body’s information system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons • Types of Neurons o Sensory Neurons – communicate information from the environment to the central nervous system o Motor Neurons – communicate information from the central nervous system to the muscles o Interneurons – communicate information from one neuron to another o Neurons differ in size, shape, and complexity. The distinctive shapes of neurons reflect their specialized functions PSYC 1301 Seept133,20016 Lecture Notes • Characteristics of the Neuron o Most neurons have three basic components § Cell body (soma): nucleus, chromosomes § Dendrites § Axon • Parts of a Neuron o Cell Body – life support center of the neuron o Dendrites – branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons o Axon – long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath to isolate and speed up messages through neurons o Terminal Branches of axon – branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neutrons • Overview of Neural Communication o Between Neurons § Between axon and dendrites § Exchange of chemical neurotransmitters occurs across the synapse § Trigger by spike potential o Within the Neuron § From dendrite to axon § Base on movement of electrically charged ions from outside and inside of the neuron § Recorded as the all-or-none action potential or spike potential • Communication Within the Neuron Action Potential o Resting Potential § The neuron is negatively charged inside – not outside – of the cell § Due to presence of positive sodium ions outside the cell (Na+) and negative proteins inside the cell § This leads to a resting potential of -70 millivolts inside the cell § Potassium ions are also found inside the cell; they are positively charged • Threshold o Threshold: Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signals minus exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the neuron fires an action potential • Action Potential Properties o All-or-None Response – a strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed o Intensity of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon • Communication Between Neurons: Excitatory and Inhibitory Messages o Neural Transmitters can have different effects § Transmitters open various types of ion channels by fitting into a receptor site of a specific shape on a specific channel PSYC 1301 Seept13,,20166 Lecture Notes § Excitatory messages – increase the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will activate § Inhibitory message – decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neurons will activate • Neurotransmitter and Receptor Site Shapes o In this figure, NE is the abbreviation for the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and Ach is the abbreviation for acetylcholine o Figure è • Neurotransmitters and Their Effects o The delicate balance of neurotransmitters impacts ability to perceive, feel, think, move, act, and react. o Connection between a particular neurotransmitter and a particular effect is not a simple one-to-one relationship o Most behaviors are the result of the complex interaction of different neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters sometimes have different effects in different areas of the brain • Dopamine Pathways o Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease • Agonists o Agonists mimic neurotransmitters o This agonist molecule excites. It is similar enough in structure to the neurotransmitter molecule that it mimics its effects on the receiving neuron. Morphine, for instance, mimics the action of endorphins by stimulating receptors in brain areas involved in mood and pain sensation. • Antagonist o Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter o This antagonist molecule inhibits. It has a structure similar enough to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor. Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by blocking Ach receptors involved in muscle movement. PSYC 1301 Sept 13,20016 Lecture Notes • How Drugs Affect Synaptic Transmission o Drugs can increase production of a transmitter and prolong transmitter action by blocking reuptake o Some drugs are shaped like neurotransmitters § Antagonists poorly fit the receptor and block the transmitter § Agonists fit the receptor well and act like the transmitter • Nervous system o Central Nervous System (CNS) o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • The Central Nervous System o Spinal reflex § Simple, involuntary behavior that is processed in the spinal cord without brain involvement • Critical Thinking Question o Spinal reflexes are handled at the level of the spinal cord – the brain doesn’t weigh in until after the response. o Why might we want to act without ‘thinking’ § In order to respond as quickly as possible (e.g. withdrawing your hand from a hot stove) • Peripheral Nervous System o Somatic Nervous System – the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles o Autonomic Nervous System – part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) o Sympathetic Nervous System – Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations o Parasympathetic Nervous System – division of the ANS that cams the body, conserving its energy
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'