New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Macromolecule Notes

by: locnaschek

Macromolecule Notes BIOL 1406 02

Marketplace > Lamar University > Biology > BIOL 1406 02 > Macromolecule Notes
Lamar University

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the four classes of macromolecules and their properties as well as important reactions involved: Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis.
General Biology I (Majors)
Dr. Randall Terry
Class Notes
Science, Biology, Macromolecules, Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, polymers, monomers, structures, functions
25 ?




Popular in General Biology I (Majors)

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by locnaschek on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.

Similar to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University


Reviews for Macromolecule Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/07/16
Macromolecules Four Classes Most macromolecules are polymers, a polymer is a bigger molecule built up of smaller building  blocks, called monomers. Only one macromolecule is not a polymer: lipids.    Carbohydrates­ built up of monosaccharides/simple sugars, is a polymer    Fats (lipids)­ has no building blocks, is not a polymer    Proteins­ built up of amino acids, is a polymer    Nucleic Acids­ built up of nucleotides Condensation Reaction/ Dehydration Synthesis The addition of monomers to the end of a growing chain Involves removing one water molecule (H O) 2er monomer added o requires use of energy Uses a type of metabolism: anabolism o (You may remember this from the first week) anabolism builds up a molecule  from parts using energy Hydrolysis  Essentially the opposite of dehydration synthesis  The removal of monomers from the end of a polymer  Involves adding one water molecule for each monomer removed o Releases energy  Occurs spontaneously  Uses the other type of metabolism: catabolism o (Also may be remembered from week 1) catabolism breaks down molecules into  smaller parts, releasing energy Amino Acid Structure Amino acids are the monomers of a protein, and proteins are the polymers of amino acids Every amino acid has 2Hs bonded to N (the amino group) and O and OH (hydroxide)  bonded to C (the carboxyl group) o The distinguishing feature of each amino acid is “R,” its side chain.  These are  unique to each amino acid and are critical to protein function Each has distinct chemical properties such as hydrophobic or hydrophilic      Hydrophobic means “water hating”      Hydrophilic means “water loving”  These are determined by the polarity of the amino acid’s side chain  If an amino acid is hydrophobic, it will tend to be found toward the center  of the 3­D “blob” of a protein in order to get as far from water as possible; if it is hydrophilic, it will be on the outside of the blob so it can be as close as possible to the water. Water is polar because each end has the opposite charge (the Oxygen side is negative and the Hydrogen side is positive) o Polar molecules will dissolve when placed in water Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure     Primary (all) o The sequence of amino acids (proteins)     Secondary (all) o Formation of folded patterns in segments of polypeptide chains o Patterns are a result of the hydrogen bonds between amino acids in proteins o Examples are the alpha helix, pleated sheets, and turns     Tertiary (all) o The 3­D shape of a protein o Can be a ribbon model or a space filling model     Quaternary (only some) o The formation of one functional unit by attaching different polypeptide chains   Collagen is one polypeptide chain, it can be associated with others and  form one big unit, such as hemoglobin Some Important Functions of Proteins  Structural Support Storage Transportation of other substances Signaling from different parts of an organism Movement Enzymes in metabolism Defense The list could go on; proteins have so many different functions because they have many  different structures. Nucleic Acids Made up of nucleotides o Nucleotides are made up of a nitrogenous base + a pentose sugar + a phosphate  group  The nitrogenous base is unique to every nucleotide There are five: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil A and T (or U in RNA) are complementary, as are C and G G and A are purines which means they have a 2 ring structure C, T, and U are pyrimidines which means a 1 ring structure The purines will always pair with pyrimidines  The pentose sugar is deoxyribose for DNA (missing one oxygen which  makes it less reactive) and ribose for RNA Functions in the storage and retrieval of information There are two types: o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  Stores information, such as the information necessary for making all  proteins needed by the cell, all RNA needed by the cell, and it can make  copies of itself  Double stranded structure o RNA (ribonucleic acid)  Transfers information  Single stranded structure DNA strands run antiparallel to each other (5’—3’ and 3’—5’) DNA contains the information necessary to direct protein synthesis o DNA converted to RNA through transcription o RNA information is converted to the amino acid sequence in a protein through  translation o These two steps together equal gene expression Carbohydrates  Composed of the general formula CH O m2aning there is always twice as much hydrogen as carbon and oxygen Three Types of Carbohydrates    Monosaccharides­ used as an energy source    Disaccharides­ used as an energy source o Two monosaccharides= one disaccharide    Polysaccharides­ complex carbohydrates      Starches are used as an energy source  Use alpha linkage which allows bonds to be broken      Cellulose is used for structure in plant cell walls  Use beta linkage which does not allow bonds to break o Made up of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharides Energy is found in the bonds (when they are broken they release energy) Lipids The only non­polymer  Can be hydrophobic (water hating) due to no charge from similar electronegativity or  amphipathic (both hydrophobic and ­philic)  Three classes: o Fats (energy storage)  Don’t dissolve well in water because they are hydrocarbons (hydrophobic)  Two kinds:  Saturated fats: found largely in animal tissue; single covalent  bonds between carbons form straight chains  Unsaturated fats: found in plant tissue; double covalent bond  between at least one set of carbons forms a bend o Phospholipids (membrane construction)  Have a polar, hydrophilic head (electronegative) and a nonpolar,  hydrophobic tail (not electronegative)  These always form a bilayer in aqueous solutions (water) because the tails  want to get away from the water and the heads want to get closer o Steroids (hormones)  Four ring structure  Important components of cell membranes  Mostly hormones such as estradiol and testosterone


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.