Macromolecule Notes BIOL 1406 02
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by locnaschek on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 02 at Lamar University taught by Dr. Randall Terry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology I (Majors) in Biology at Lamar University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Macromolecules Four Classes Most macromolecules are polymers, a polymer is a bigger molecule built up of smaller building blocks, called monomers. Only one macromolecule is not a polymer: lipids. Carbohydrates built up of monosaccharides/simple sugars, is a polymer Fats (lipids) has no building blocks, is not a polymer Proteins built up of amino acids, is a polymer Nucleic Acids built up of nucleotides Condensation Reaction/ Dehydration Synthesis The addition of monomers to the end of a growing chain Involves removing one water molecule (H O) 2er monomer added o requires use of energy Uses a type of metabolism: anabolism o (You may remember this from the first week) anabolism builds up a molecule from parts using energy Hydrolysis Essentially the opposite of dehydration synthesis The removal of monomers from the end of a polymer Involves adding one water molecule for each monomer removed o Releases energy Occurs spontaneously Uses the other type of metabolism: catabolism o (Also may be remembered from week 1) catabolism breaks down molecules into smaller parts, releasing energy Amino Acid Structure Amino acids are the monomers of a protein, and proteins are the polymers of amino acids Every amino acid has 2Hs bonded to N (the amino group) and O and OH (hydroxide) bonded to C (the carboxyl group) o The distinguishing feature of each amino acid is “R,” its side chain. These are unique to each amino acid and are critical to protein function Each has distinct chemical properties such as hydrophobic or hydrophilic Hydrophobic means “water hating” Hydrophilic means “water loving” These are determined by the polarity of the amino acid’s side chain If an amino acid is hydrophobic, it will tend to be found toward the center of the 3D “blob” of a protein in order to get as far from water as possible; if it is hydrophilic, it will be on the outside of the blob so it can be as close as possible to the water. Water is polar because each end has the opposite charge (the Oxygen side is negative and the Hydrogen side is positive) o Polar molecules will dissolve when placed in water Proteins Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary (all) o The sequence of amino acids (proteins) Secondary (all) o Formation of folded patterns in segments of polypeptide chains o Patterns are a result of the hydrogen bonds between amino acids in proteins o Examples are the alpha helix, pleated sheets, and turns Tertiary (all) o The 3D shape of a protein o Can be a ribbon model or a space filling model Quaternary (only some) o The formation of one functional unit by attaching different polypeptide chains Collagen is one polypeptide chain, it can be associated with others and form one big unit, such as hemoglobin Some Important Functions of Proteins Structural Support Storage Transportation of other substances Signaling from different parts of an organism Movement Enzymes in metabolism Defense The list could go on; proteins have so many different functions because they have many different structures. Nucleic Acids Made up of nucleotides o Nucleotides are made up of a nitrogenous base + a pentose sugar + a phosphate group The nitrogenous base is unique to every nucleotide There are five: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil A and T (or U in RNA) are complementary, as are C and G G and A are purines which means they have a 2 ring structure C, T, and U are pyrimidines which means a 1 ring structure The purines will always pair with pyrimidines The pentose sugar is deoxyribose for DNA (missing one oxygen which makes it less reactive) and ribose for RNA Functions in the storage and retrieval of information There are two types: o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Stores information, such as the information necessary for making all proteins needed by the cell, all RNA needed by the cell, and it can make copies of itself Double stranded structure o RNA (ribonucleic acid) Transfers information Single stranded structure DNA strands run antiparallel to each other (5’—3’ and 3’—5’) DNA contains the information necessary to direct protein synthesis o DNA converted to RNA through transcription o RNA information is converted to the amino acid sequence in a protein through translation o These two steps together equal gene expression Carbohydrates Composed of the general formula CH O m2aning there is always twice as much hydrogen as carbon and oxygen Three Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides used as an energy source Disaccharides used as an energy source o Two monosaccharides= one disaccharide Polysaccharides complex carbohydrates Starches are used as an energy source Use alpha linkage which allows bonds to be broken Cellulose is used for structure in plant cell walls Use beta linkage which does not allow bonds to break o Made up of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharides Energy is found in the bonds (when they are broken they release energy) Lipids The only nonpolymer Can be hydrophobic (water hating) due to no charge from similar electronegativity or amphipathic (both hydrophobic and philic) Three classes: o Fats (energy storage) Don’t dissolve well in water because they are hydrocarbons (hydrophobic) Two kinds: Saturated fats: found largely in animal tissue; single covalent bonds between carbons form straight chains Unsaturated fats: found in plant tissue; double covalent bond between at least one set of carbons forms a bend o Phospholipids (membrane construction) Have a polar, hydrophilic head (electronegative) and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail (not electronegative) These always form a bilayer in aqueous solutions (water) because the tails want to get away from the water and the heads want to get closer o Steroids (hormones) Four ring structure Important components of cell membranes Mostly hormones such as estradiol and testosterone
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