Lecture Notes 1
Lecture Notes 1 PHIL 121
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Patterson on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 121 at Volunteer State Community College taught by Thomas Mether in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
8/24/16 Moral Development I. Ethics & Childhood Development ✴ RESEARCH FROM COGNITION SCIENCE/NEUROSCIENCE A. Normal human babies are born with: 1. A basic conscience (sense of right and wrong) — neurally hardwired 2. A basic capacity for empathy (the capacity to learn to interpersonally interact with significant others) — to know that they are feeling 3. A basic impulse to do what is right — babies might be selfcentered but not in a selfish way B. There are two exceptions to the above 1. psychopath: genetically caused or prenatally caused by the neurological basis of A1A3 is completely absent • antisocial personality disorder, manifested in aggressive, perverted, criminal or amoral behavior without empathy or remorse • seem to appear normal 4. sociopath: spectrum disorder • complete disregard for rules and lie constantly • seldom feel guilt or learn from punishments C. positive psychology — finding universal value; psychological health correlates with physical health 8/31/16 I. Adorno, Miligram and Kohlberg A. Adorno Authoritarian Personality : has extremely low self esteem because they were raised by authoritarian parents that only gave their children negative feedback • As a result, the who psychological makeup of an authoritarian personality is addicted to the need to gain self esteem by winning recognition and approval at any cost (even if they have to commit cil crimes to win it. • Hence, they appear as nice and charming people. • Three parenting styles… D. Miligram Obedience Studies : the results were that 70% of the American population were “moral cowards” who did not feel comfortable taking a stand against what they knew to be morally wrong. E. Both A and B involve research on how moral development is arrested, stopped or deviates into psychomoral pathology. • What does normal moral development look like beyond the early childhood years? F. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development • A “convention” means “social conventions.” A person is aware of and responds to social pressures and expectations to conform—peer pressure. “Convention” is used for all three stages (so it’s key). 1. PreConventional Stage: not yet aware of peerpressure and expectations of others 5. Conventional Stage: aware of social expectations 6. PostConventional Stage: able to take a moral stand against social conventions that are wrong even if they become unpopular • Fowler, Stages of Faith Development ________________________________________________________________ 9/7/16 I. Virtue ethics is mainly concerned not with moral rule and moral decision making but with how you cultivate people of good moral character.
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