Grog 1001 notes- Lecture 6
Grog 1001 notes- Lecture 6 GEOG 1001-010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Rena Ricke on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1001-010 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Holly Barnard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Geography: Climate and Vegetation in Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Lecture 6- Chapter 4 (continued) atmosphere and surface radiation/ energy balance A little review… Energy pathways o Scattering Changing directions of energy movement, without altering its wavelength (7% of earths reflectivity) o Refraction Change in speed and direction of light o Absorption Assimilation of energy by molecules and conversion to different wavelength o Transmission Energy that passes through atmosphere or water without transformation (no change in wavelength) 1. Light entering the atmosphere bends in a process known as ________. a. Reflection b. Distention c. Refraction d. Insertion 2. Given that the lapse rate is 6.4 c/km, a mean sea level temperature of 20 degrease Celsius, and the fact that Everest is 8,000 m above sea level, what would you guess the rough mean temperature is at the summit? a. – 31degrees Celsius b. 44 degrees Celsius c. – 51 degrees Celsius d. Balmy Energy pathways/ heat transfer o Conduction Molecule to molecule transfer o Convention Energy transferred by movement vertically (density; warm air rises, cool wait sinks) o Advection Horizontally dominant movement/ rising – wind o Radiation Electromagnetic waves traveling though air or space o Latent head Changing the phase of heat/ changes the release of energy into the atmosphere Conversion of liquid into gas takes energy o Water molecules absorb energy from surrounding areas o When we sweat, evaporate coolly helps regulate temperature o Evaporation in a cooling process o On earth, water evaporation cools surrounding land by transferring heat away from surface Surface and air temperature o Surface temperature When solar radiation strikes the ground: Shortwave radiation absorbed by ground surface and warms the surface Long wave radiation emitted Sensible heat flond from warm objects to cooler objects (2 law of thermodynamics) Latent heat transfer: water evaporates, using latent heat, or condenses, relaxing talent heat Conversion redistributes heat in a fluid by rising o Boiling point decreases with elevation Water evaporates more quickly with elevation o Temperatures close to the ground Temperatures on the ground are usually more extreme then temperatures at standard height: Standard height: 1.2 m (4.0 ft) Coldest time of day- just before the sun rise Hottest time of the day- several hours after noon o ° C= (°F – 32) ÷ 18 o °F = (1.8 × °C) + 32 o K = °C + 273.15 Clouds and forcing o Modest reflection of shortwave isolation o Most shortwave isolation transmitted the surface o Long wave radiation “detained” Condensation trails o Moisture from planes Cirrus clouds o Make up of ice crystals Earth – Atmosphere Radiation Balance Energy budget by latitude o Absorbed more by the equator Simplified surface energy balance o Net R = (S- S) + (L - L) o +SW (insolation) o – SW (reflection) o + LW (infrared) o – LW (infrared) Stefan- Boltzmann Law o Longwave radiation emitted by Earth’s surface can be calculated using this Law: L = εΣ T04 Ε = surface emissivity (0-1) (ratio of energy radiated from a material’s surface to that radiated from a black body(perfect emitter) at the same temp and wavelength) Σ (sigma)= Stefan- Bolzmann constant = 5.67×10^- 8 m^-2 K^-4 T0 = surface temperature in Kelvin Global sensible hear – transfer of heat between the air and surface through conviction, conduction, advection highest over land, especially dry areas o Dry = most often desert areas o Further away from the equator = less sensible heat Global latent heat of evaporation o (the energy stored in water was water evaporates) highest over water, especially warm waters
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