PSY 171 Notes for Class Week 1; Book Chapter 1
PSY 171 Notes for Class Week 1; Book Chapter 1
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by danqisandy on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Rochester taught by Dr. Comer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see PSY171 in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Rochester.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Social and Emotional Development CSP/PSY 171 Tues/Thurs-3:15 pm S What is Developmental Psychology? S on studyingstability anded changeacross the life span S Aims to identify and describe factors influencing changeover time S Both physicallyand psychologically S Developmental psychology isnot just about children. Periods of Development S Prenatal Period: Conception to birth S Infancy and Toddlerhood : Birth-2 years S EarlyChildhood : 2-6 years S Middle Childhood : 6-11 years S Adolescence :11-18years S Emerging Adulthood (?): 18-25(There are debates about whetherthis period exist.People in this period can bevery different, and have different is setup? e.g. collegestudent vs.earlyworkers.)use of how our economy S Adulthood : 25-end of life S *it’s a roughly time period. The Five Big Questions in Developmental Psychology S 1. Are children inherently good or bad? SChildren are BAD S Thomas Hobbes: Original Sin SChildren are GOOD S Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Innate Purity SChildren are NEITHER S John Locke: TabulaRasa (blank slate) The Five Big Questions in Developmental Psychology S2. Is nature (biological forces) or nurture (environmental forces) the primary influence on human development? S Most people agree now BOTH are important S Most debate is about the interaction of thetwo: how to nature and nurture interact with each other? The Five Big Questions in Developmental Psychology S 3. (Activity vs Passivity debate) Are children actively involved in the developmental process or are they passive recipients of social and biological influences? SActivity: Jean Piaget;Passivity: behaviorists. SAgain, most people lie in the middle SReciprocal determinism: the child goes out to interact with the environment, and then the environment alters it selves and thus provide the child opportunities of changes. The Five Big Questions in Developmental Psychology S 4. (Continuity debate) Is development continuous or discontinuous? SContinuous theorists S Change is gradual, quantitative (change in degree) –e.g. language development SDiscontinuous theorists S Change is abrupt, qualitative (change in kind), occurs in stages–e.g. motor development The Five Big Questions in Developmental Psychology S5. (Universality debate) Are the most noteworthy aspects ofdevelopment “universals” that all humans displa, or are they the “particularistic” or ideographic developments that characterize each individual? S Stage theorists (discontinuous theorists): usually believe in universals A Brief Historyof DevelopmentalPsych S 7000 B.C.-Medievaltimes S Children had few rights S Not valued by adults (sacrificed, abused, sold as servants) S Pre- and Early- MedievalTimes S not differenciated from with adulthood.iadults, childhood is S Expected to behave asadults S Later Medieval period- attitude shifts S There’s no sense of adolescence History of Developmental Psych S 17 -18 Centuries S Children are fragile creaturesof God S Protect them by sending them to school S for adulthood and as labor forceren & get them ready S Enlightenment S Tabula rasa S NobleSavages (children are born with morality, but it’s parents’ duty to direct that moral.)y History of Developmental Psych th S Late 19 Century S Scientist first begin to take an interest in studying children. S Baby Biographies (however,peopledon’t reallywrite down the progress, but rather the milestones. Thus the record is imperfect. Also there’s no comparison betweenbaby biographies, because differentparents emphasize stuffs.)t aspects. Also, parents record more positive stuffs than negative S Fatherof Developmental Psychology S G. Stanley Hall S Normative approach S adultirst scientistto give different questionnaires for children than that’s for How do developmental psychologistsask and answer questions? S Scientific Method: Put our hunches to the test! S Start witha theory S Organizedsystem of assumptionsor principles that purports to explain certain phenomena and how they are related S NOT just personal opinion but rather based on a lot of reading (base on a decent amount of knowledge) S E.g watching TV violence influences aggressionin children S Fromtheory,derive a hypothesis S Statement that attempts to describe or explain a behavior S E.g watching violent TV how many hours a day increases what kind of aggressionin children Scientific Method (cont.) S Next, develop a prediction S What will happen? S Define terms: S Operational definition: specify howphenomena will be observed and measured S Ex. ViolentTV as shows with at least 8 acts of aggression or injury from one human to another; Aggression in children as inflicting physical injury on another person. S Next- Test it!! Run study and analyze result. How do developmental psychologists collect data? SCasestudies SObservation studies SSelf-Reports SNeurobiological tests Case Studies S Detailed descriptionof a particular individualbased on careful observation or formal psychological testing S Used when you have a unique small group of people whom you really want to study in depth. You want to get as much information as you can about these people. S Commonly used by clinicians S Upside: Can be very revealing S Downside: Individualcan be atypical, possiblymake untrue assumptions.(get insightof one personyet know nothing about the general population.) Observation Studies S Researcherobserves, measures, and records behavior S Avoids intruding on the people being observed! S Naturalisticobservation : observehow people/animals act innatural environment (cons: you have no control over environment.) S Laboratory observation (structured observation :observepeople/animals inthe lab (pro: more control, and can introduce variablesthat cannot be seeninthe natural environment. Con: people know they are being watched, so they might behave differently.) S * but people tend to forget they are being videotaped. S Upside:See how things reallyoperate S Downside:Does not explain behavior (describesit) Self-Reports: Clinical interview 1. Unstructured/Open S No setformat S Allow child to set interview course S Ex. What would you like to talk about? S Usedclinically. 2. Semi-Structured S Series of ope-ended questions followedby probes S Ex. Tell me what you think about school. S BEST. 3. Structured S Series of specific, clo-endedquestions S Ex. On a scale of -5, how sad doyou feeltoday? S But you don’t get important information that explain the issue. Self Reports: Psychological Tests/Questionnaires SProcedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. Neurobiological T ests Method Description Electroencephalogram (EEG) Recordingelectrical activity of cerebral cortex Event-related potentials (ERPs) Uses EEGs to record brain activatinn response to specific stimuli (target certain area of the brain) Functional magnetic resonanceimaging Uses magnetic fields to measuoxygen (fMRI) levels in brain to determine which section of brain is using more oxygen (and therefore “working”) Positron emission tomography (PET) Injects person withradioactive glucose and measure which parts of brain use more glucosewhen doinga task Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) Infrared light beamed at brain to determine whichareas are absorbing more oxygen whendoinga task [better for children, because it doesn’t require children to be still Research Design: Correlational Study S Correlation: numerical measure of strength of relationship between two variables S Correlation Coefficient: numerical value that measures correlation S Ranges from +1to -1 S 0 =no association betweenvariables S Positive correlation: As one variable goes up, the other tends to goes up S go downe correlation: As one variable goes up, the other tends to Research Design: Psychological Experiment SOnly way to determine causality! SAllows researcher to control or manipulate the situation being studied SDo something to affect people’s behavior and then watch what happens! SVariable: characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale Two Types of Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable S Aspect of the experiment that is S What researcher is trying to being manipulated or varied by measure or predict the researcher S Reaction of subject to independent variable Random Assignment S Random Assignment: Assigning people to experimentaland control groupsso each person has same probability as any other of being assigned to either group S This is thecrucial feature that allows us to determine causality!! S Eliminates possibility ofconfounding variables ascause of differences S Natural or Quasi-experiments: S Cannot randomly assign participantsinto groups S Try to construct groups carefully to eliminate as many confounds as possible Developmental Design S Cross-sectional Design S Study several groups of children who differ in age at the same time 3 Year Olds Pro: cheap, quick, easy Cons: Cohort effect (is the difference due to age? 5 Year Olds Or is the difference due to historical and cultural issues?) e.g. peopleborn before and after 911. 7 Year Olds Time 1 Developmental Design S Longitudinal Design S Same participantsare observed repeatedly over time 3 Years Old 5 Years Old 7 Years Old Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 (2010) (2012) (2014) Pro: can rule out outliers with abnormal data; better th-sectional in determine casual relationship. Con: subjects lose, final sample is very different than from the original sample; only follow Developmental Design Pro: Combine both cross-sectional and longitudinaldesign Con: time consuming; costly. S Sequential Design S Combines cross -sectionaland longitudinaldesigns 3 Year Olds 5 Year Olds 7 Year Olds 5 Year Olds 7 Year Olds 9 Year Olds Time 1 Time 2 Time 3 (2010) (2012) (2014) Ethics S Must respect participants’ dignity and welfare S Must protect participant from harm S Risk-vs.-benefitsratio S Participationmust be voluntary S Informed Consent : must know enough about a study to make an intelligent decision S Children cannot give consent! Parents must consent . But children have to give consent as well. S Deception: Must be justified by study’s potential value S Debriefing: after study, explain to the participant about what happened.
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