PDBIO 305: Chemistry Review - Week 1
PDBIO 305: Chemistry Review - Week 1 PDBIO305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PDBIO305 at Brigham Young University taught by David Thomson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Physiology and Developmental Biology at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chemistry Review Key: p+ = proton(s), e- = electron(s), amu = atomic mass unit Number of p+, neutrons & e- determine properties of an element Molecular weight: weight of a molecule relative to H atom Ex: H20 = (1.01 amu x 2) + 16 amu = 18.02 amu Bonds Ionic – transfer e- Newly created positive and negative atoms stay bonded because they attract each other, even though e- stays transferred Covalent – share e- Hydrogen – unequally share e- Ex: In H20 oxygen is more electronegative, so it pulls e- from two H atoms strongly Polarity within the molecule, and different molecules are attracted when their negatively polar & positively polar sides come close Peptide bond – hydrogenation of amino acids Moles Standard unit for the amount of a substance Standard unit: a certain number of items which does not change, i.e. 1 dozen 1 mole = 6 x 10 23molecules 1 mole H = 1 gram Easy way to calculate 1 mole of a molecule: Add total amu of atoms in molecule -> that many grams is 1 mole (because H is 1 amu) In other words total amu for any given element or molecule = # grams in 1 mole of that element or molecule Solutions = mixtures formed by dissolving one substance in another Solute = dissolved substance (i.e. salt) Solvent = substance in which the solute is dissolved (i.e. water) Molar solutions In physiology we want to know the # of molecules or ions in solutions This is expressed in molar base units (denoted by capital M – M does not mean mole!) 1 molar (M) = 1 mole/liter Mole = # of molecules, Molar = concentration (these are different!) Mole = molecular weight in grams Molar base unit = moles of solute per liter of solution (not solvent) To make a molar solution, can’t just add 1 liter of water to a mole! This would = more than 1 liter of solution Put mole in first and then add solvent to add up to 1 liter total Molar solution practice: How would you make 250 ml of 1M NaCl? 1 M NaCl = 1 mol (58g) NaCl /1L = 1000 ml .25 x 1 M NaCl = 14.5 g NaCl /250 ml How would you make 450 ml of 2.5M NaCl? 2.5M NaCl = 2.5 x 58 g = 145g NaCl /1L .45 x 2.5M NaCl = 65.25g NaCl/450 ml How would you make 1 L of 100 mM (millimolar = millimoles/liter) NaCl and 1 M glucose (MW = 180 amu)? 100 mM = .1 M 58 g x .1 = 5.8 g (5.8 g NaCl + 180 g glucose)/1 L Percent solutions = grams of solute in 100 ml solution (not in 1 L!) Ex: we prepare a 10% sucrose solution by weighing out 10 g of sucrose and then diluting to 100 ml w/ water mg% = mg solute/100 ml solution Ex: blood glucose concentration 100 mg% = 100 mg glucose/100ml blood Practice Example: 500 ml of NaCl contains 5g NaCl % solution = 1% (5g/500ml = .01 g/ml = 1%) mg% = 1000mg% (1% g/ml x 1000 mg/g = 1000mg%) Molar = 0.172 M (10g/L, 1 mole NaCl = 58g, 10g/58g = 0.172 M) (5g = 1 mole/58 g = .086 moles/500ml = .000172 moles/ml x 1000ml = .172 moles/L = M) Millimolar = 172 mM (0.172 M x 1000 mM/M = 172 mM)
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