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ANSC 2000 set 6

by: Kaitlyn Elliott

ANSC 2000 set 6 ANSC 2000 - 001

Kaitlyn Elliott

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This set of notes contains information about companion reptiles & amphibians. There is a word search link included to help memorize some of the reptile terminology connected since that makes up the...
Companion Animal Management
Carolyn E Huntington
Class Notes
animal, Science
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
ANSC 2000 notes 6 Companion Reptiles & Amphibians Key Terms: 1. Mucous Glands­ glands that secrete slimy coating that protects skin 2. Granular Glands­ specialized glands that secrete variety of substances from antimicrobial  & analgesics to pheromones & toxins 3. Redleg­disease precipitated by stress & immunosuppression caused by bacteria  Aeromonas hydrophilia resulting in septicemia with hemorrhages & ulcerations most  visible on the legs & abdomen 4. Mycobacteriosis­Disease caused by immunosuppression that’s transmissible to humans 5. LTHV­ Luck Tumor herpesvirus unique to leopard frogs that causes kidney tumors that  grow rapidly in summer months resulting in depression & muscle loss 6. Chlamydia psittaci­ causeative agent of psittacosis in birds that causes depression,  abdominal distension, & redness of skin 7. Lamellae­ Adhesive pads on feet that enable climbing on almost any surface 8. Monitors­ large lizards with powerful jaws, tails, & well­developed claws 9. Tegus­ Terrestrial lizards that are active during the day 10. Autonomy­Tail will break off to escape when restrained 11. Ectotherms­species that seek warm surfaces for conduction or shady areas to cool 12. Poikilothermic­ utilize external sources of heat to regulate body temperature 13. Behavioral thermoregulation­ move towards & away from focal heat source as needed 14. Dimorphic­Difference in physical characteristics such as size & color 15. Parthenogenic ­females produce genetically identical offspring 16. Infectious stomatitis­ Bacterial infection secondary to stress & immunosuppression which ultimately invade bone & cause infection & degeneration  17. Amebiasis­Protozoal disease where animals regurgitate, stop eating, lose weight, &  dehydrate 18. Metabolic bone disease­Disease where bodies remove calcium from bones in attempt to  balance itself since fed a diet low in calcium & not provided appropriate wavelengths of  light to synthesize Vitamin D3 19. Squamates­group of reptiles that include snakes & lizards since most closely related 20. Colubrids­Venomous rear­fanged snakes with enlarged teeth located farther back in  upper jaw 21. Constrictors­ snakes that suffocate prey before eating  22. Spactacle­modified scale that covers & protects the eyes 23. Hemipenes­paired reproductive organs 24. Cryptosporidiosis­ protozoal disease that causes loss of appetite & vomiting 25. Inclusion body disease­Viral disease that causes regurgitation, disorientation, & paralysis 26. Dysecdysis­Disease that results from abnormal shedding from too low humidity, mites,  ticks or systemic diseases 27. Toxicosis­disease associated with pesticides 28. Carapace­Upper shell 29. Plastron­Lower shell 30. Beak­Horny plates of skin (turtle jaws) 31. Vitamin A deficiency­Damage to respiratory tract & eyelids seen in young turtles fed  diets mostly of insects of poor quality fish ______________________________________________________________________________ Need to Know: Frogs:  Class: Amphibia  4000 species of amphibians around the world  Common Pets: 1. Fire Bellied Toads 2. Poison Dart Frogs 3. South American Horned Frogs 4. African Clawed Frogs 5. Tree Frogs 6. Bullfrogs 7. Leopard Frogs 8. Toads  Biology: - Frogs have smooth, glandular skin  - Two types of skin glands:   Mucous Glands  Granular Glands - Enlargements in the lymphatic system collect lymph & drain it into the circulatory system  Lymph sacs located below the skin of the back & adjacent to the hind legs - Structural modifications in order to jump 2­10 times body length:  Fused bones  Heavy muscling in legs - Bladder can also serve as a storage site for water  Life as tadpoles: - Breath through gills - 2­chambered heart - No limbs, but a tail designed for swimming - May are herbivores  During metamorphosis: - 3­chambered heart - Gills replaced by lungs - Limbs grow & tail reabsorbed   Aquatic, semiaquatic, or terrestrial   Husbandry: - Water quality is critical since chlorine is toxic (WATER MUST BE  DECHLORINATED) - Cages should consider species housed:  Tight­fitted lid to prevent escape  Should contain structures that encourage frogs in natural behavior - Many common cleaning agents are toxic so clean with dilute chlorine bleach,  rinse thoroughly, air dry & NEVER USE SOAP - Frogs are ectotherms & rely on heat from environment   Prefer warm temperatures although some are cool species  Most require relative humidity of 80% - Natural light should be provided in normal day/night cycle since many are  nocturnal & will suffer otherwise  Adults are carnivorous  - Frogs visually orient on their prey and need live food  Common Diseases: - Redleg - Mycobacteriosis  - Parasites - Fungi - LTHV - Chlamydia psittaci Lizards:  Class: Reptilia  Common pets: 1. Iguanas 2. Dragons 3. Anoles 4. Skinks 5. Geckos 6. Monitors 7. Tegus  Biology: - Lizards have smooth, dry skin covered by scales - Skin is shed in cycles with large patches coming off in each shed - Most have eyelids (geckos are exception) - 3­chamgered heart - Tongues may be fleshy or forked - All lizards have teeth - Only 2 venomous species - Autonomy   Husbandry: - Appropriate substrate:  Newspaper  Indoor/outdoor carpet  Hardwood shavings - Inappropriate substrate:  Softwood shavings (contain chemicals toxic to reptiles) - Hide boxes (tend to be secretive by nature) - Some species require branches & artificial vegetation - Fresh water at all times since most drink from bowls and others soak in dishes   Certain lizards lap dew requiring frequent misting - Prefer warm climates since ectotherms  Engage in behavioral thermoregulation - Most tolerate 30­70% relative humidity   Airflow should be relative low to prevent desiccation  - Some lizards require exposure to UV light of an appropriate wavelength to  metabolize vitamin D   Light from bulbs mustn’t pass through glass or plastic as these absorb  wavelengths of light needed  Place 18­24 in. above cage & change every 6 months - Cages should be cleaned regularly to prevent fecal buildup & bacteria populations since sensitive to phenolics  Diets: - Variables as lizards fill a variety of niches in world  Vary from dark, leafy greens & vegetables to crickets & other insects or  even fruit - Some are sexually dimorphic and parthenogenic  - Males have paired sexual organs - Most lizards lay eggs but some species are live bearers   Common Diseases: - Infectious stomatitis (mouth rot) - Amebiasis - Matabolic bone disease - Thermal burns Snakes:  Class: Reptilia  3 basic groups of venomous snakes: 1. Vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, gaboon vipers) 2. Elapids (cobras, coral snakes, mambas) 3. Colubrids (boomslangs, brown tree snakes, mangrove snakes)  Common Pets: 1. Boas 2. Pythons  Ball pythons   Burmese pythons 3. Garter snakes 4. King snakes & milk snakes 5. Rat snakes & corn snakes 6. Hognose snakes  Biology: - Elongated body & no limbs - Have smooth, scale­covered skin - Lack eyelids but have spectacles - Shed their skin in cycles; entire outer layer & spectacle shed as a single piece - Forked tongue withdraws into sheath at front of mouth - Most snake teeth are small - Opening of trachea is immediately behind the tongue sheath - Most snakes have an elongated right lung that ends in an air sac - Other organs like liver & kidney also elongated - Heart has 3­chambers - Ventral tail vein that’s easy to access - Tend to be solitary by nature  Husbandry: - Tightly fitted lids since they’re escape artists - Diagonal of enclosure should be approximately same length of snake - Substrates for flooring:  Hardwood shavings  Carpet  Newspaper  Sand (desert species) - Require hide box or other retreat - Climbing species require branches, dowels or elevated resting surface - Water should be provided in large bowls so snake can soak - Ectothermic like other reptiles (Prefer temp. of 80 F - Prefer average relative humidity of about 50% - Cage cleaning frequent enough to prevent buildup while allowing for territorial  marking (phenolic compounds are toxic)  Diet: - All snakes are carnivorous  Diets vary from insects & worms to fish, rodents, rabbits  Some are nonselective while others require one specific prey item - Most will readily eat prekilled prey items  Frozen prey should be thawed & allowed to warm - Monitor live prey as rodent bites can be fatal  - Swallow their prey whole  Restraint: - If restraint is necessary, a firm but gentle grasp behind the jaws  Excess or harsh restraint can agitate & cause striking  Snake hook used for transferring  Tongs can cause damage so use only in extreme cases by trained  professionals   Breeding: - Most require dormancy or hibernation with decreases in temperature & day length & a period of fasting prior to breeding - All males have hemipenes - Sexing snakes is by probing  Blunt instrument inserted into genital opening near the tail where depth of  probe determines if male or female - Some lay eggs while others have live births  Common diseases: - Infectious stomatitis  - Amebiasis & cryptosporidiosis  - Inclusion body disease - Parasites - Dysecdysis & retained spectacles - Toxicosis - Thermal burns, gout & obesity also concerns  Turtles:  Class: Reptilia  Common Pets: 1. Mud & mask turtles 2. Painted turtles 3. Pond sliders 4. Softshell turtles 5. Asian box turtles 6. Native box turtles  Biology: - All turtles have bony shells which are fused to vertebrae & ribs (most have scales  covering the shell) - Carapace & plastron - Lack teeth but beak can tear off chunks of food - Can withdraw in their shells from predators  Box turtles have hinges allowing it to close completely  Husbandry: - Cages include:  Glass aquaria  Wading pools  Livestock troughs  Pens - Require a retreat of hiding place to decrease stress - Water should allow free swimming & be deep enough to allow the turtle to right  itself if turned over  Some species require a “haul out” area with gentle slope & a low­wattage  radiant heat source to allow basking - Ectotherms - Relative humidity between 30­70% - Require UV light for vitamin D metabolism - Clean tanks frequently to avoid buildup since phenolic compounds are toxic to all  reptiles  Feeding: - Different species require different diets - Aquatics will only eat in water  Handling: - Grasp the sides of the shell firmly and be aware that some can still bite you (hold  between legs)  Common Diseases: - Metabolic bone disease - Vitamin A deficiency - Respiratory tract infections - Shell fractures - Middle ear infections  Small turtles <4” are illegal since known to be well­known source of Salmonella ______________________________________________________________________________ Important Informatioon: Frogs:  Wild amphibian populations have suffered significant reductions in numbers in  recent years, but conservationists don’t understand why  - Role in niche of environment is a cause & effect  Pets: 1. Fire Bellied Toads - 2 in. long - Good choice for hobbyists - Native habitat in southern Asia - Bright green & black colored backs & orange & black undersides 2. Poison Dart Frogs - South Americans rub tips of their darts in the poisonous mucus of  the frog’s skin to kill game since glands in skin produce strong  toxins - Adult frogs ~.75 in. long - Habitat: tropical rainforests of South & Central America 3. South American Horned Frogs - Large: ~5.5 in. - Fat frogs with wide mouths - Females weigh up to 1 lb. - Bright green w/ red marking OR dull green w/ black 4. African Clawed Frogs - 4­5 in. long - Live up to 15 yrs. - Strictly aquatic & good pets 5. Tree Frogs - Found in Americas, Asia & Europe - Over 537 species - Various colors 6. Bullfrogs - Found as native species in most countries - American Bull Frog & African Bull frog most popular - Vary in length from 6­9 in. depending on species 7. Leopard Frogs - Slender greenish to brown frogs - Dark spots edged w/ slightly lighter color 8. Toads - Short, thick bodies & short legs - Cannot jump as far as frogs  Most species have most skin & skin is highly permeable to water  Toads have glands behind the eyes that secrete toxins to prevent ingestion, but other  toads can eject toxins  Therapeutic drugs can be injected in lymph sacs  Empty bladder when frightened  Frogs undergo metamorphosis  Cages must be cleaned regularly since buildup of ammonia from excreta an occur - Replace soil when contaminated - Clean frequently with fresh, dechlorinated water to help maintain environment  Crickets & mealworms are common feed  Insects should always be dusted with mineral/vitamin supplement  When handling large frogs must be securely restrained to prevent damage to hindlimbs - Small frogs should be cupped in hands - Wash hands thoroughly to remove toxins  Diseases: - Common parasites are nematodes that can burrow under skin & cause roughened,  pitted appearance (patches of skin may slough) - Fungis can cause secondary infections - Mycobacteriosis is transmissible to humans to often euthanized - Chlamydia psittaci can infect African clawed frogs and are often euthanized since  disease is zoonotic Lizards:  Pets: - Iguanas  >650 species  Most common pet is green iguana, native to Central & South America  with lengths of up to 6.5 ft.  Desert iguana native to southwest US (brown in color) - Dragons  Mid­sized stocky lizards  Most common pet is Australian bearded dragon  When frightened, puff out their jaws & open their mouths - Anoles  Green anoles found in southern US  Lives in trees, shrubs & around houses  6­8 in. long as adults & change colors - Skinks  >1275 species  Live among leaves & underbrush of forest floors  Five­linked skink is found in eastern US - Geckos  ~800 species  Found in tropical & semitropical habitats  Feet have lamellae  Most species are nocturnal & have loud voices - Monitors  Some communities propose bans on their ownership  Most common is African Savannah monitor which can reach 5 ft. in length & live 10­12 yrs. - Tegus  Fairly large & can be aggressive  Most common is the Argentine red tegu  Reach 4 ft. in length & live ~15 yrs.  When handling, support the entire body - For larger species, one hand hold lizards around shoulders behind the head & the  other supports legs & tail - Never restrain by tail - Will bite, scratch or slap with tails to defend themselves  Common Diseases: - Infectious Stomatitis­ red areas in mouth progress to ulcerations and animal won’t eat  Treatment: aggressive antibiotics - Amebiasis­  Treatment: antiprotozoal drugs - Metabolic bone disease­Earliest symptoms include lack of truncal lifting when  moving  Progresses to limbs breaking from normal activity & inability to move  which is common in young iguanas & chameleons  Treatment isn’t always successful - Thermal burns­ result of lizards allowed access to radiant heat source which is  more likely if ambient temperature is too low and sores can become infected with  bacteria  Lizards won’t move from heat even after skin blisters  Prevent by covering light source with screen or place outside the enclosure  Hot rocks aren’t recommended because they can malfunction Snakes:  Vipers have large, erectile fangs located near front upper jaw  Elapid fangs are in same location but smaller & fixed  Viper venom causes tremendous tissue damage  Elapid venom attacks the central nervous system  Species of both vipers & elapids can deliver fatal bites  Venom: - If bitten, get to a hospital for entivenom - Antivenom produced by using horses injected with small amounts of venom,  which causes the production of antibodies - Antivenom doesn’t reverse damaging effects since tissue damage has already  been done  Likelihood or opportunity to encounter humans: - Confrontational/aggressiveness of species - Effectiveness of delivery - Quantity of venom injected - Potency of venom  Pets: 1. Boas - native of Central & South America (some North America) - Boa constrictor is most popular - Tames quickly & can be bred in captivity  - Light brown to yellow or orange with dark bars - Grow up to 18 ft. in length - Excellent swimmers - Found in trees & on ground 2. Pythons - Ball pythons: o Good for beginners o Rolls itself into a ball & tucks its head in the coil when  threatened o 3­5 ft. long - Burmese pythons: o Can reach over 20 ft. in length o Can weigh more than 200 lbs. o Usually gentle o Not recommended for novice owners 3. Garter snakes - Widespread throughout North America - Can be tamed; adapt well to captivity - Have a dark body; some are solid colored & others are striped or  checkerboard 4. King snakes & milk snakes - Beautiful & usually docile - Throughout US & parts of Canada & South America - Adults 6­7 ft. in length - Constrictors - Colors band of red, black & yellow 5. Rat snakes & corn snakes - Generally docile - AKA chicken snakes - Adults are 3­5 ft. long - Can be brightly colored or black 6. Hognose snakes - Medium­sized, reaching 48 in. in length - If threatened, inflate bodies & flatten head - Will strike but rarely bite - Characteristic pointed, upturned nose  Patchy shed indicative of disease or environmental problems  Forked tongue used to pick up scent molecules depositing them into vomeronasal organ  (olfactory)  Boas & pythons have long, inward­curving teeth to hold prey  Opening of trachea allows animal to breathe while holding & swallowing prey  Left lung is rudimentary  Compatible animals housed together must be separated to feed since some species will  eat each other  Will not eat if temperature is too cool - Use low­wattage incandescent light bulb directed as part of cage  Prefer average relative humidity so when lower, it results in desiccation & difficulty  shedding - Too much moisture results in blister disease  Handling: - Support body as much as possible  Approach calmly & picked up gently  Unlike bird eggs, reptile eggs aren’t rotated  Diseases: - Infectious stomatitis: Bacterial disease due to poor nutrition, stress,  immunosuppression - Amebiasis & cryptosporidiosis­protozoal diseases - Inclusion body disease­viral disease - Parasites like ticks, worms & mites - Dysecdysis & retained spectacles­ forced soak or place in pillowcase with wet  towels - Toxicosis­ Organophosphates near snakes to kill mites is dangerous and show  signs of tremors, spasms, paralysis & death - Thermal burns, gout & obesity Turtles:  Pets: 1. Mud & mask turtles - Aquatic with flattened shells, retractable heads & web feet 2. Painted Turtles - Olive or black shell - Red & yellow stripes on neck, legs & tail 3. Pond sliders - Several species such as red­eared slider 4. Softshell turtles - Leathery shell - Paddle­like webbed feet & snorkel­like nose 5. Asian box turtles - Require high immunity - Several types 6. Native Box turtles - Domed shell, hinged lower shell - Can totally withdraw head, legs & tail within shell  Aquatics will only eat in water  Diseases: - Metabolic bone disease  Will absorb calcium from bones & shell (soft)  Treatment: calcium supplements & full spectrum light - Vitamin A deficiency  Symptoms: swollen eyes & discharge from nose & eyes  Treatment: vitamin A injections & correlation of diet - Respiratory tract infections  Bacterial resulting in nasal discharge, poor appetite, dehydration  Treatment: provide antibiotic & flush nasal cavity - Shell fractures  Fractures due to improper handling, dog bites or trauma that can be  repaired with surgical wires or bonding with epoxy  Flush would thoroughly & care for like any open wound - Middle ear infections  Result of bacterial infection common in box turtles  Eardrum appears swollen & turtles become anorexic  Treatment: Perforate eardrum, flush with antiseptic & give antibiotics  Small turtles less than 4 in. should never be purchased or given as pets since FDA banned the sale & distribution of small turtles with a shell length of less than 4 in. as pets in 1975 ..\Downloads\Reptiles word search.html


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