ANSC 2000 set 6
ANSC 2000 set 6 ANSC 2000 - 001
Popular in Companion Animal Management
Popular in Animal Science
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.
Reviews for ANSC 2000 set 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/07/16
ANSC 2000 notes 6 Companion Reptiles & Amphibians Key Terms: 1. Mucous Glands glands that secrete slimy coating that protects skin 2. Granular Glands specialized glands that secrete variety of substances from antimicrobial & analgesics to pheromones & toxins 3. Redlegdisease precipitated by stress & immunosuppression caused by bacteria Aeromonas hydrophilia resulting in septicemia with hemorrhages & ulcerations most visible on the legs & abdomen 4. MycobacteriosisDisease caused by immunosuppression that’s transmissible to humans 5. LTHV Luck Tumor herpesvirus unique to leopard frogs that causes kidney tumors that grow rapidly in summer months resulting in depression & muscle loss 6. Chlamydia psittaci causeative agent of psittacosis in birds that causes depression, abdominal distension, & redness of skin 7. Lamellae Adhesive pads on feet that enable climbing on almost any surface 8. Monitors large lizards with powerful jaws, tails, & welldeveloped claws 9. Tegus Terrestrial lizards that are active during the day 10. AutonomyTail will break off to escape when restrained 11. Ectothermsspecies that seek warm surfaces for conduction or shady areas to cool 12. Poikilothermic utilize external sources of heat to regulate body temperature 13. Behavioral thermoregulation move towards & away from focal heat source as needed 14. DimorphicDifference in physical characteristics such as size & color 15. Parthenogenic females produce genetically identical offspring 16. Infectious stomatitis Bacterial infection secondary to stress & immunosuppression which ultimately invade bone & cause infection & degeneration 17. AmebiasisProtozoal disease where animals regurgitate, stop eating, lose weight, & dehydrate 18. Metabolic bone diseaseDisease where bodies remove calcium from bones in attempt to balance itself since fed a diet low in calcium & not provided appropriate wavelengths of light to synthesize Vitamin D3 19. Squamatesgroup of reptiles that include snakes & lizards since most closely related 20. ColubridsVenomous rearfanged snakes with enlarged teeth located farther back in upper jaw 21. Constrictors snakes that suffocate prey before eating 22. Spactaclemodified scale that covers & protects the eyes 23. Hemipenespaired reproductive organs 24. Cryptosporidiosis protozoal disease that causes loss of appetite & vomiting 25. Inclusion body diseaseViral disease that causes regurgitation, disorientation, & paralysis 26. DysecdysisDisease that results from abnormal shedding from too low humidity, mites, ticks or systemic diseases 27. Toxicosisdisease associated with pesticides 28. CarapaceUpper shell 29. PlastronLower shell 30. BeakHorny plates of skin (turtle jaws) 31. Vitamin A deficiencyDamage to respiratory tract & eyelids seen in young turtles fed diets mostly of insects of poor quality fish ______________________________________________________________________________ Need to Know: Frogs: Class: Amphibia 4000 species of amphibians around the world Common Pets: 1. Fire Bellied Toads 2. Poison Dart Frogs 3. South American Horned Frogs 4. African Clawed Frogs 5. Tree Frogs 6. Bullfrogs 7. Leopard Frogs 8. Toads Biology: - Frogs have smooth, glandular skin - Two types of skin glands: Mucous Glands Granular Glands - Enlargements in the lymphatic system collect lymph & drain it into the circulatory system Lymph sacs located below the skin of the back & adjacent to the hind legs - Structural modifications in order to jump 210 times body length: Fused bones Heavy muscling in legs - Bladder can also serve as a storage site for water Life as tadpoles: - Breath through gills - 2chambered heart - No limbs, but a tail designed for swimming - May are herbivores During metamorphosis: - 3chambered heart - Gills replaced by lungs - Limbs grow & tail reabsorbed Aquatic, semiaquatic, or terrestrial Husbandry: - Water quality is critical since chlorine is toxic (WATER MUST BE DECHLORINATED) - Cages should consider species housed: Tightfitted lid to prevent escape Should contain structures that encourage frogs in natural behavior - Many common cleaning agents are toxic so clean with dilute chlorine bleach, rinse thoroughly, air dry & NEVER USE SOAP - Frogs are ectotherms & rely on heat from environment Prefer warm temperatures although some are cool species Most require relative humidity of 80% - Natural light should be provided in normal day/night cycle since many are nocturnal & will suffer otherwise Adults are carnivorous - Frogs visually orient on their prey and need live food Common Diseases: - Redleg - Mycobacteriosis - Parasites - Fungi - LTHV - Chlamydia psittaci Lizards: Class: Reptilia Common pets: 1. Iguanas 2. Dragons 3. Anoles 4. Skinks 5. Geckos 6. Monitors 7. Tegus Biology: - Lizards have smooth, dry skin covered by scales - Skin is shed in cycles with large patches coming off in each shed - Most have eyelids (geckos are exception) - 3chamgered heart - Tongues may be fleshy or forked - All lizards have teeth - Only 2 venomous species - Autonomy Husbandry: - Appropriate substrate: Newspaper Indoor/outdoor carpet Hardwood shavings - Inappropriate substrate: Softwood shavings (contain chemicals toxic to reptiles) - Hide boxes (tend to be secretive by nature) - Some species require branches & artificial vegetation - Fresh water at all times since most drink from bowls and others soak in dishes Certain lizards lap dew requiring frequent misting - Prefer warm climates since ectotherms Engage in behavioral thermoregulation - Most tolerate 3070% relative humidity Airflow should be relative low to prevent desiccation - Some lizards require exposure to UV light of an appropriate wavelength to metabolize vitamin D Light from bulbs mustn’t pass through glass or plastic as these absorb wavelengths of light needed Place 1824 in. above cage & change every 6 months - Cages should be cleaned regularly to prevent fecal buildup & bacteria populations since sensitive to phenolics Diets: - Variables as lizards fill a variety of niches in world Vary from dark, leafy greens & vegetables to crickets & other insects or even fruit - Some are sexually dimorphic and parthenogenic - Males have paired sexual organs - Most lizards lay eggs but some species are live bearers Common Diseases: - Infectious stomatitis (mouth rot) - Amebiasis - Matabolic bone disease - Thermal burns Snakes: Class: Reptilia 3 basic groups of venomous snakes: 1. Vipers (rattlesnakes, copperheads, gaboon vipers) 2. Elapids (cobras, coral snakes, mambas) 3. Colubrids (boomslangs, brown tree snakes, mangrove snakes) Common Pets: 1. Boas 2. Pythons Ball pythons Burmese pythons 3. Garter snakes 4. King snakes & milk snakes 5. Rat snakes & corn snakes 6. Hognose snakes Biology: - Elongated body & no limbs - Have smooth, scalecovered skin - Lack eyelids but have spectacles - Shed their skin in cycles; entire outer layer & spectacle shed as a single piece - Forked tongue withdraws into sheath at front of mouth - Most snake teeth are small - Opening of trachea is immediately behind the tongue sheath - Most snakes have an elongated right lung that ends in an air sac - Other organs like liver & kidney also elongated - Heart has 3chambers - Ventral tail vein that’s easy to access - Tend to be solitary by nature Husbandry: - Tightly fitted lids since they’re escape artists - Diagonal of enclosure should be approximately same length of snake - Substrates for flooring: Hardwood shavings Carpet Newspaper Sand (desert species) - Require hide box or other retreat - Climbing species require branches, dowels or elevated resting surface - Water should be provided in large bowls so snake can soak - Ectothermic like other reptiles (Prefer temp. of 80 F - Prefer average relative humidity of about 50% - Cage cleaning frequent enough to prevent buildup while allowing for territorial marking (phenolic compounds are toxic) Diet: - All snakes are carnivorous Diets vary from insects & worms to fish, rodents, rabbits Some are nonselective while others require one specific prey item - Most will readily eat prekilled prey items Frozen prey should be thawed & allowed to warm - Monitor live prey as rodent bites can be fatal - Swallow their prey whole Restraint: - If restraint is necessary, a firm but gentle grasp behind the jaws Excess or harsh restraint can agitate & cause striking Snake hook used for transferring Tongs can cause damage so use only in extreme cases by trained professionals Breeding: - Most require dormancy or hibernation with decreases in temperature & day length & a period of fasting prior to breeding - All males have hemipenes - Sexing snakes is by probing Blunt instrument inserted into genital opening near the tail where depth of probe determines if male or female - Some lay eggs while others have live births Common diseases: - Infectious stomatitis - Amebiasis & cryptosporidiosis - Inclusion body disease - Parasites - Dysecdysis & retained spectacles - Toxicosis - Thermal burns, gout & obesity also concerns Turtles: Class: Reptilia Common Pets: 1. Mud & mask turtles 2. Painted turtles 3. Pond sliders 4. Softshell turtles 5. Asian box turtles 6. Native box turtles Biology: - All turtles have bony shells which are fused to vertebrae & ribs (most have scales covering the shell) - Carapace & plastron - Lack teeth but beak can tear off chunks of food - Can withdraw in their shells from predators Box turtles have hinges allowing it to close completely Husbandry: - Cages include: Glass aquaria Wading pools Livestock troughs Pens - Require a retreat of hiding place to decrease stress - Water should allow free swimming & be deep enough to allow the turtle to right itself if turned over Some species require a “haul out” area with gentle slope & a lowwattage radiant heat source to allow basking - Ectotherms - Relative humidity between 3070% - Require UV light for vitamin D metabolism - Clean tanks frequently to avoid buildup since phenolic compounds are toxic to all reptiles Feeding: - Different species require different diets - Aquatics will only eat in water Handling: - Grasp the sides of the shell firmly and be aware that some can still bite you (hold between legs) Common Diseases: - Metabolic bone disease - Vitamin A deficiency - Respiratory tract infections - Shell fractures - Middle ear infections Small turtles <4” are illegal since known to be wellknown source of Salmonella ______________________________________________________________________________ Important Informatioon: Frogs: Wild amphibian populations have suffered significant reductions in numbers in recent years, but conservationists don’t understand why - Role in niche of environment is a cause & effect Pets: 1. Fire Bellied Toads - 2 in. long - Good choice for hobbyists - Native habitat in southern Asia - Bright green & black colored backs & orange & black undersides 2. Poison Dart Frogs - South Americans rub tips of their darts in the poisonous mucus of the frog’s skin to kill game since glands in skin produce strong toxins - Adult frogs ~.75 in. long - Habitat: tropical rainforests of South & Central America 3. South American Horned Frogs - Large: ~5.5 in. - Fat frogs with wide mouths - Females weigh up to 1 lb. - Bright green w/ red marking OR dull green w/ black 4. African Clawed Frogs - 45 in. long - Live up to 15 yrs. - Strictly aquatic & good pets 5. Tree Frogs - Found in Americas, Asia & Europe - Over 537 species - Various colors 6. Bullfrogs - Found as native species in most countries - American Bull Frog & African Bull frog most popular - Vary in length from 69 in. depending on species 7. Leopard Frogs - Slender greenish to brown frogs - Dark spots edged w/ slightly lighter color 8. Toads - Short, thick bodies & short legs - Cannot jump as far as frogs Most species have most skin & skin is highly permeable to water Toads have glands behind the eyes that secrete toxins to prevent ingestion, but other toads can eject toxins Therapeutic drugs can be injected in lymph sacs Empty bladder when frightened Frogs undergo metamorphosis Cages must be cleaned regularly since buildup of ammonia from excreta an occur - Replace soil when contaminated - Clean frequently with fresh, dechlorinated water to help maintain environment Crickets & mealworms are common feed Insects should always be dusted with mineral/vitamin supplement When handling large frogs must be securely restrained to prevent damage to hindlimbs - Small frogs should be cupped in hands - Wash hands thoroughly to remove toxins Diseases: - Common parasites are nematodes that can burrow under skin & cause roughened, pitted appearance (patches of skin may slough) - Fungis can cause secondary infections - Mycobacteriosis is transmissible to humans to often euthanized - Chlamydia psittaci can infect African clawed frogs and are often euthanized since disease is zoonotic Lizards: Pets: - Iguanas >650 species Most common pet is green iguana, native to Central & South America with lengths of up to 6.5 ft. Desert iguana native to southwest US (brown in color) - Dragons Midsized stocky lizards Most common pet is Australian bearded dragon When frightened, puff out their jaws & open their mouths - Anoles Green anoles found in southern US Lives in trees, shrubs & around houses 68 in. long as adults & change colors - Skinks >1275 species Live among leaves & underbrush of forest floors Fivelinked skink is found in eastern US - Geckos ~800 species Found in tropical & semitropical habitats Feet have lamellae Most species are nocturnal & have loud voices - Monitors Some communities propose bans on their ownership Most common is African Savannah monitor which can reach 5 ft. in length & live 1012 yrs. - Tegus Fairly large & can be aggressive Most common is the Argentine red tegu Reach 4 ft. in length & live ~15 yrs. When handling, support the entire body - For larger species, one hand hold lizards around shoulders behind the head & the other supports legs & tail - Never restrain by tail - Will bite, scratch or slap with tails to defend themselves Common Diseases: - Infectious Stomatitis red areas in mouth progress to ulcerations and animal won’t eat Treatment: aggressive antibiotics - Amebiasis Treatment: antiprotozoal drugs - Metabolic bone diseaseEarliest symptoms include lack of truncal lifting when moving Progresses to limbs breaking from normal activity & inability to move which is common in young iguanas & chameleons Treatment isn’t always successful - Thermal burns result of lizards allowed access to radiant heat source which is more likely if ambient temperature is too low and sores can become infected with bacteria Lizards won’t move from heat even after skin blisters Prevent by covering light source with screen or place outside the enclosure Hot rocks aren’t recommended because they can malfunction Snakes: Vipers have large, erectile fangs located near front upper jaw Elapid fangs are in same location but smaller & fixed Viper venom causes tremendous tissue damage Elapid venom attacks the central nervous system Species of both vipers & elapids can deliver fatal bites Venom: - If bitten, get to a hospital for entivenom - Antivenom produced by using horses injected with small amounts of venom, which causes the production of antibodies - Antivenom doesn’t reverse damaging effects since tissue damage has already been done Likelihood or opportunity to encounter humans: - Confrontational/aggressiveness of species - Effectiveness of delivery - Quantity of venom injected - Potency of venom Pets: 1. Boas - native of Central & South America (some North America) - Boa constrictor is most popular - Tames quickly & can be bred in captivity - Light brown to yellow or orange with dark bars - Grow up to 18 ft. in length - Excellent swimmers - Found in trees & on ground 2. Pythons - Ball pythons: o Good for beginners o Rolls itself into a ball & tucks its head in the coil when threatened o 35 ft. long - Burmese pythons: o Can reach over 20 ft. in length o Can weigh more than 200 lbs. o Usually gentle o Not recommended for novice owners 3. Garter snakes - Widespread throughout North America - Can be tamed; adapt well to captivity - Have a dark body; some are solid colored & others are striped or checkerboard 4. King snakes & milk snakes - Beautiful & usually docile - Throughout US & parts of Canada & South America - Adults 67 ft. in length - Constrictors - Colors band of red, black & yellow 5. Rat snakes & corn snakes - Generally docile - AKA chicken snakes - Adults are 35 ft. long - Can be brightly colored or black 6. Hognose snakes - Mediumsized, reaching 48 in. in length - If threatened, inflate bodies & flatten head - Will strike but rarely bite - Characteristic pointed, upturned nose Patchy shed indicative of disease or environmental problems Forked tongue used to pick up scent molecules depositing them into vomeronasal organ (olfactory) Boas & pythons have long, inwardcurving teeth to hold prey Opening of trachea allows animal to breathe while holding & swallowing prey Left lung is rudimentary Compatible animals housed together must be separated to feed since some species will eat each other Will not eat if temperature is too cool - Use lowwattage incandescent light bulb directed as part of cage Prefer average relative humidity so when lower, it results in desiccation & difficulty shedding - Too much moisture results in blister disease Handling: - Support body as much as possible Approach calmly & picked up gently Unlike bird eggs, reptile eggs aren’t rotated Diseases: - Infectious stomatitis: Bacterial disease due to poor nutrition, stress, immunosuppression - Amebiasis & cryptosporidiosisprotozoal diseases - Inclusion body diseaseviral disease - Parasites like ticks, worms & mites - Dysecdysis & retained spectacles forced soak or place in pillowcase with wet towels - Toxicosis Organophosphates near snakes to kill mites is dangerous and show signs of tremors, spasms, paralysis & death - Thermal burns, gout & obesity Turtles: Pets: 1. Mud & mask turtles - Aquatic with flattened shells, retractable heads & web feet 2. Painted Turtles - Olive or black shell - Red & yellow stripes on neck, legs & tail 3. Pond sliders - Several species such as redeared slider 4. Softshell turtles - Leathery shell - Paddlelike webbed feet & snorkellike nose 5. Asian box turtles - Require high immunity - Several types 6. Native Box turtles - Domed shell, hinged lower shell - Can totally withdraw head, legs & tail within shell Aquatics will only eat in water Diseases: - Metabolic bone disease Will absorb calcium from bones & shell (soft) Treatment: calcium supplements & full spectrum light - Vitamin A deficiency Symptoms: swollen eyes & discharge from nose & eyes Treatment: vitamin A injections & correlation of diet - Respiratory tract infections Bacterial resulting in nasal discharge, poor appetite, dehydration Treatment: provide antibiotic & flush nasal cavity - Shell fractures Fractures due to improper handling, dog bites or trauma that can be repaired with surgical wires or bonding with epoxy Flush would thoroughly & care for like any open wound - Middle ear infections Result of bacterial infection common in box turtles Eardrum appears swollen & turtles become anorexic Treatment: Perforate eardrum, flush with antiseptic & give antibiotics Small turtles less than 4 in. should never be purchased or given as pets since FDA banned the sale & distribution of small turtles with a shell length of less than 4 in. as pets in 1975 ..\Downloads\Reptiles word search.html
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'