Discomforts of Pregnancy
Discomforts of Pregnancy NURB 331
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Forbeck on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NURB 331 at University of Indianapolis taught by Professor Rairdon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Lifespan 1 in NURSING at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
NURB 331: Lifespan 1 Unit 2 Discomforts of Pregnancy Discomforts of 1 trimester: 1. Nausea and vomiting (morning sickness) Causes: o The exact cause is unknown o Could be from rise in hCG and estrogen levels o Changes in carb metabolism o Emotions o Fatigue Self-care activities: o Avoid eating too much o Stay in bed until the nausea/vomiting stops o Eat small amounts of carbs o Eat toast or crackers before getting out of bed in the morning o Try to eat 5-6 small meals a day instead of 3 large meals o Stop prenatal vitamins because iron can cause nausea o Drink fluids separately from meals 2. Urinary Frequency: Causes: o Caused by the pressure that is on the bladder during the first and third trimesters. Self-care activities: o Void when you first feel the urge o Increase the fluid intake during the day o Reduce fluid intake in the evening so you can avoid nocturia o Kegel exercises o If there is burning or itching, report to physician 3. Fatigue and malaise (Tiredness and discomfort) Causes: o May be caused by hormone changes o May be aggravated by nocturia due to urinary frequency o Psychological response to pregnancy Self-care activities: o Plan naps for throughout the day o Seek help from family or friends so there is more available time for napping o Eat well balanced diet o Go to sleep earlier 4. Breast Tenderness Cause: o The increase levels of estrogen and progesterone cause the tenderness Self-care activities: o Wear supportive bra that is the correct size o Wash with warm water without using soap 5. Vaginal Discharge (Leukorrhea): Causes: o Hyperplasia of vaginal mucosa and increased production of mucosa by endo cervical glands due to the increase of estrogen Self-care activities: o This isn’t preventable but can be managed o Daily bathing o Douching is avoided o Avoid nylon underwear o Wear cotton panties o Report if there is foul odor or change in color or character 6. Nasal stuffiness and epistaxis (nosebleeds) Causes: o Thanks to the elevated estrogen levels causing hyperemia of the mucous membranes Self-care activities: o Cool vaporizers o Nose drops or spray 7. Ptyalism: Defined: o Excessive and bitter salivation Causes: o Unknown o May be caused by elevated estrogen or reluctance to swallow due to nausea Self-care activities: o Mouthwash o Chew gum o Such hard candy o Limit carb intake 8. Gingivitis: Cause: o Increased vascularity caused by increase in estrogen Self-care activities: o Eat balanced diets o Brush teeth gently o Avoid infection o See dentist Second trimester Discomforts 1. Pyrosis (heartburn) Causes: o Progesterone slows down the GI tract which reverses peristalsis, relaxes the cardiac sphincters, delays the time it takes to empty the stomach, stomach displaced upwards and compressed by the enlargement of the uterus Self-care measurements: o Eat numerous small meals to avoid gas o Avoid large meals o Sit upright to avoid reflux o Milk will aid as temporary relief o Sleep with multiple pillows o Drink herbal tea o Stop smoking and drinking coffee because it stimulates the acid formation Anti-secretory agents that could be used if severe: o Rantidine (Zantac) o Cometidine (Tagamet) o Omeprazole (Losec) Avoid medications high in sodium because they may cause electrolyte imbalance Antacids high in calcium may cause rebound hyperacidity 2. Varicosities: Cause: o Venous congestion in lower extremities o Heredity o Increase age and weight due to pregnancy o Relaxation of smooth muscle walls in veins Self-care activities: o Lie down will legs up and one hip elevated o Wear support hose o Avoid being obese o Avoid constipation o Exercise moderately 3. Flatulence: Cause: o Decreased GI motility o Pressure of uterus o Air swallowing Self-care activities: o Lower intake of sweets because they increase bacterial growth in intestines o Avoid fatty foods o Chew food thoroughly o Keep on a bowel schedule 4. Hemorrhoids: Cause: o Constipation or from pushing (can also get them after giving birth from pushing so hard) Self-care activities: o Bowel schedule o Drink lots of water o Exercise o Eat high fiber foods o EX: Grains, cereals, or pastas o Lie on side with hips elevated o Push hemorrhoids back into rectum Call doctor if: o Persistent pain or bleeding 5. Constipation: Cause: o Progesterone slowing down GI motility o Pressure of uterus o Iron supplements o Diet, lack of exercise, decreased fluids Self-care activities: o Drink 6-8 glasses of water a day o Add a glass of water per cup of coffee/pop/tea o Add foods high in fiber o Do not stop taking iron supplements if they are prescribed o 1-mile brisk walk to stimulate peristalsis o Swim or ride stationary bike o Bowel schedule 6. Backache: Cause: o The uterus enlarges causing increases curvature of the spine o Increase hormone levels causing softening of cartilage in joints o Fatigue o Poor body mechanics Self-care activities: o Use foot supports when sitting or standing o Pillows behing back when sitting o Maintain correct posture o Use squatting to pick things up rather than bending over o No high heels o Abdominal supports o Back rubs o Exercises to strengthen back 7. Faintness: o Cause: o Postural hypotension o Venous pooling from change of position o Anemia o Standing in a warm area too long o Self-care activities: o Arise slowly from positions o Avoid standing too long in warm places o Sit as necessary 8. Round Ligament: Cause: o Stretching, hypertrophy, and lengthening as uterus enlarges Self- care activities: o Cannot prevent it o Heat can help o Rest and maintain proper body mechanics 9. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Cause: o Compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel of the wrist o Repetitive hand movements can cause aggravation Self-care activities: o Not preventable o Use splint if needed o Try not to use repetitive hand movements o Elevate effected arm 10. Vascular Spider Nevi: Cause: o Increased sub Q blood flow in due to increase in estrogen o No clinical significance Self-care activities: o Disappears after pregnancy Third Trimester Discomforts: 1. Leg cramps Cause: o Enlarging uterus compresses nerves o Reduced level of diffusible serum calcium or elevation of serum phosphorus Self-care activities: o Elevate legs during the day o Stretches 2. Dyspnea Cause: o Decreases vital capacity from pressure of enlarging uterus on diaphragm Self-care activities: o Proper posture o Sleep propped up o Avoid eating too much at once o Stop smoking o If symptoms are serious then call a doctor to be safe 3. Ankle Edema: Cause: o Standing for long periods of time o Hot weather o Hormone changes causing increase in sodium o Circulatory congestion of lower extremities o Varicose veins Self-care activities: o Frequent dorsiflexion of feet when standing or sitting long o Avoid restricted bands around legs o Elevate legs 4. PUPPP (as seen in previous notes)
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