Lifespan ch 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3300 at Texas State University taught by Meeks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Lifespan development in Psychology at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development 08.31.16 What is the science of development? o How and why for development o We include all kinds of people o Observing change over time How do we study development? o Scientific Method: We are curious, which leads to questions being asked Create a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions from what we gathered Report results Who do we include? o All kinds of people Why do we include them? o N Nature vs. Nurture debate o Nature: relates to the genetic package o Nurture: how you are raised; starts from the moment from conception Critical period: o Early in life when certain things must occur for development to be normal Sensitive period o Certain types of development happened most easily (ex. Language) Development is multidirectional in 5 ways: o Growth and plateau o Linear: upwards development such as height and weight o Growth and decline such as cognitive ability o Unpredictable o No change Multi-contextual: o Cohort: age range o SES: Social Economic Status o Neighborhood context Multi-cultural o Generations passing on values and what is important Multidisciplinary o Many disciplines contribute to understanding lifespan development, such as medicine, education, psychology Plasticity of Development o N Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development Major Theories: o Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory: 5 psychosexual stages Oral: birth to 1-year-old; oral stimulation Anal: 1-3 years; pleasure shifts to being able to control bowel and bladder Phallic: 3-6 years; parts their body has, curious to compare Latency: 6-puberty; sexual interests and urges go dormant Genital: puberty-rest of life; figuring out how to get their sexual needs met in an appropriate adult way o Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: 8 stages Trust vs. Mistrust: 0-1 years, involving what and what not to trust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 1-3 years, involving doing things on their own Initiative vs. Guilt: 3-6 years, involving being able to utilize their choices Industry vs. Inferiority: 6-12 years, involving productivity Identity vs. Confusion: 12-early 20’s Intimacy vs. Isolation: 20’s-40’s, involving emotional intimacy, marriage Generativity vs. Stagnation: midlife – 40’s, evaluating life they led so far, determining worth and good to the world Integrity vs. Despair: end of life, life review of value and meaning, whether they made good decisions o Theory of Behaviorism: Conditioning: learning associations Classical Conditioning: learn associations between events you do not control (ex. Pavlov’s dogs who salivated with a signal of food) Operant Conditioning: learning to associate consequences with certain responses and change accordingly o Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: Our development is effected by our observation of others as we imitate and model our behavior o Piaget’s Cognitive Theory Sensorimotor: 5 senses involved and interactions Preoperational: -6 years Concrete Operational: 6-11 years Formal Operational: 12-rest of life, highest order of thinking Assimilation: Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development Accommodation o new information coming in, new framework (concept of child learning about cats and dogs with the differentiation of the two animals) Humanism: Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs o 5. Self-actualization o 4. Esteem: feeling about self and others o 3. Love and Belonging: care and love from others o 2. Safety: personal safety o 1. Physiological: food, water, sleep, sex Evolutionary: Charles Darwin believe: o Our nature causes us to: Survive (driven to do so) Reproduce o Our traits serve a purpose Scientific Approach o Independent variable: variable being manipulated o Dependent variable: variable not being manipulated o Experimental group: receives the treatment o Control group: does not receive the treatment What do we learn from research? o Examples: Adjustment to divorce: negative effects may still be seen in childhood/adulthood Delinquency: breaking rules/laws, good parenting at age 5, talking rather than corporal punishment leads to less delinquency Daycare: mothers’ warmth and responsiveness to child are more important than the length of times in the daycare Responsive and encouraging parenting: (positive with them) leads to better development by first grade Stability of personality: tends to remain stable over time How do we do research? o Survey method: gather information from many people (not very in depth) and is hard to validate (such as paper/online survey) o Cross-sectional method: look at different ages compared on the same trait o Longitudinal method: follow one group over time o Cross-sequential method: different groups of people that you do follow over time (combining longitudinal + cross sectional) Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Correlational method: looks to see if two things are related Does not prove causation Positive correlation: go the same direction, whether it is up/down Negative correlation: go in opposite directions Code of Ethics: o Voluntary: everyone needs to agree that they are part of the study o Confidential: any and all info must be confidential, cannot be shared o Harmless: cannot affect them negatively o Informed consent: can stop at any time