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Microbiology - Week 1

by: Mallorie Jones

Microbiology - Week 1 Bio 183

Mallorie Jones

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This consists of major points and topics the professor brought up in class and maybe also other stuff I thought would be good to know. Good Luck highlights: Pink - Titles/headings blue - terms ...
Brian N. Albrecht
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallorie Jones on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 183 at Northwest Iowa Community College taught by Brian N. Albrecht in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 09/07/16
Chap 1 ­ Microbial World and You Microbes in Our Lives ● Microbes ­ microorganisms; minute living things that are too small to be see by the  unaided eye ● In the soil, they  help  break down wastes ●  Others play a role in  photosynthesis ●  Also used in  chemical products → ethanol and acetate ● Produce fermented foods → vinegar, cheese, bread ● Pathogenic ­ disease producing → few in numbers ● Practical knowledge is needed for medicine → prevent disease occurrence → Led to apptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and microbial labs → allows humans to prevent food spoilage → Produce products used in manufacturing and treatment Naming and Classifying Microorganisms A )  Nomenclature ● Established in 1735 by Carolus Linneus ● Genus ­ 1st name; always capitalized ● Specific epithet ­ species name; not capitilized *Both are underlined or italized ● Scientific names describe an organ, or honor a researcher → Are “Latinized” and used worldwide → Can be abrv. after first use B)  Types of Microorganisms → Either Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes 1)    Bacteria ○ Are relatively simple, unicellular organs ○ Prokaryotes ­  pronucleus; not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane ○ Binary fission ­ reproduction by dividing into 2 different cells → for energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals or photosynthesis 2) Archaea ○ Consist of prokaryotic cells;  cell walls  lack peptidoglycan ○ Often found in extreme environments ○ Divided into 3 main groups: i) Methanogens ­ produce methane as a waste product from respiration ii) Extreme halophiles ­ halo=salt, philic=loving; extremely salty environments iii) Extreme thermophiles ­ live in hot sulfurous water; not  known to cause human disease 3) Fungi → yeast and/or mold ○ Eukaryotes ○ May be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (molds and mushrooms) ○ True fungi have  cell walls  with chitin → use organic chemicals for energy 4) Protozoa ○ Unicellular eukaryotic microbes ○ Moved by pseudopods, flagella or cilia → Eukaryotes → Absorbs or ingest organic chemicals 5) Algae ○ Photosynthetic eukaryotes with a wide variety of shapes and sexual and  asexual reproductive forms ○ Abundant in freshwater and saltwater → produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds → cellulose cell walls 6) Viruses ○ Very different from the other microbial groups; so small that most can be seen only with an electron microscope ○  Are  acellular → (biologically) non living structures ○ Consists of a core DNA or RNA → are replicated only when they are in living host cell 7) Multicellular Animal Parasites → not true microbes ○ Eukaryotes → multicellular animals ○ 2 major groups: i) Parasitic  flatworms          ii) Roundworm → Helminths → microscopic stages in life cycles C)  The Golden Age of Microbiology ● Period from 1857­1914 ○ Most advances found by Robert Koch and Pasteur Kock ● Discoveries include: ○ Relationship between microbes and disease ○ Role of immunity in preventing and curing diseases ○ Antimicrobial drugs → Pasteur paved the way for future research that would show relationship between microbes and disease in plants and animals 1) Fermentation and Pasteurization ○ French merchants wondered why wine and beer soured  ○ Pasteur found that yeast and bacteria turn sugar to alcohol in absence of  air ○ Fermentation ­ process of turning sugar to alcohol to make wine to beer ○ Pasteurization ­ the application of a high heat for a short time ■ Heat the solution just enough to kill bacteria that caused  the spoilage → acetic acid ­ bacteria that use and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar 2) The Germ Theory of Disease ○ The idea that microorganisms cause disease → are in the air and can spoil food ○ Pasteur → silkworm disease → 1865, caused by protozoan ○ Robert Koch → first proof of bacteria → 1876, Kock’s Postulates ■ Kock’s Postulates ­ a sequence of experimental steps for  directly relating  a  specific microbe to a specific disease → specific microbe could cause specific disease D)  Modern Developments in Microbiology ● Bacteriology ­ the study of bacteria ● Mycology ­ the study of fungi ● Parasitology ­ the study of protozoa and parasitic worms ● Immunology ­ the study of immunity ● Virology ­ the study of viruses E)  Microbes and Human Disease ● Normal microbiota ­ microbes normally present in our body  ○ Benefit us → prevent pathogen growth; produce folic acid and vitamin K ● Infectious Diseases ­ a disease in which pathogens invade a susceptible host → when a pathogen overcomes the host’s resistance ● Emerging Infectious Disease (EID’s) ­ new diseases appearing more recently; also  diseases increasing in incidence ○ Example: Ebola → 2014?


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