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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday March 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Professor Brasinzky in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see US Diplomatic History in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/27/15
Week 11 Eisenhower and the New Look 19529 Eisenhower became president Dwight Eisenhower 0 Motives I Reduce domestic spending I Save republicans party I Fear of military industrial complex 0 He believed that the cold war was an ideological struggle all so clear that there were some differences between Eisenhower and Truman and they became more clear when they got to the end 0 What are his concerns I Military industrial complex war being waged for profit I The amount of money the USA is spending to wage the cold war I His fears were that the American values would be destroyed through bankruptcy as a byproduct of waging the cold war Dilemma of gun vs butter I Would create a garrisoned state money was always being spent on war society is constantly mobilized for war Military spending for Eisenhower was as much as a threat to democracy and security than the war itself John Foster Dulles secretary of state 0 Religious anticommunist saw the cold war as a battle between good and evil wasn t charismatic or good speaker he was a real hard core conservative The New look Policy mid 1953 0 Massive retaliation idea that USA would respond to military attacks from USSR through the usage of their nuclear weapons 0 Quemoy Matsu Crisis USA and China con ict I China bombarded the island with artillery shells I He threatened to use nuclear weapons and China eventually back down because they were worried about nuclear retaliation or that they stopped because it was time to stop Mid 19539 operation solarium foreign policy called the New Look Dulles speech 0 Solution I Eisenhower believes that USA should be more cost efficient and save money I Maximum defense at an affordable price local defense will always be funded the way to deter aggression is to respond vigorously massive retaliation I Imposing collective security I We are going to be unpredictable do not promise that they will always fight man power with man power it may respond with a nuclear strike they are held uncertain but very much power I USA has the advantage of nuclear superiority while China and Russia only have the advantage in manpower I Made USSR and China become less assertive I Doesn t it need money to build nuclear power I Persuades the rest of the world to believe that massive retaliation will be used if necessary Limitations of Massive Retaliation o Threat of nuclear war 0 Alienated some American Allies o Soviets increasing supply of nuclear warheads Eisenhower speech 0 Disarmament to concentrate in domestic economic policies Nikita Khrushchev o Emerges as the new leader of the Soviet Union 0 Eisenhower has actually met with the president of USSR and hoped to pursue disarmament Peace initiatives 0 Open skies create greater aerial inspections for military planes of both nations 0 Atoms for peace I Idea was to create a poll of finishable nuclear materials that could be used by any country for peaceful purposes try to stop other countries from developing nuclear power 0 None of these proposals were acceptable to USSR because of the I U2 Incident Krushchev would make industrial cut in USSR army and the problem is that Eisenhower undermined his own policy USA was accused of spying on USSR after the U2 plane was shot down they brought the pilot to confirm it o Destroyed the efforts made to build up peace between the two nations since the discovery of American spy plane in the region Berlin uprising psychological and elements 0 June 19539 Berlin uprisers worker s riots and demonstrations and they seem to threatened the soviet regime and they strategize these regimes Document ofNCS 158 o Eisenhower thinks that Kennan has first laid out that the communist regimes survives only by suppressing their people from gaining the access of the outside world use this evidence to strengthen the allies of western Europe 0 Eisenhower argues that the weakness of communism is becoming apparent to their own leaders and it should be exploit to end the regime The New look 0 Psychological warfare I USA should try to subvert these communist regimes in eastern Europe and destroy them from within and from taking open stances and that USA regarded maximum support in every international issue It fits in to his policy of spending less money in investing in nontraditional warfare I Take advantage to these regimes and find ways to exploit basic human desire for freedom one other element for Eisenhower administration strategy meant to make the USA less expensive 0 Alliances I Eisenhower believes that the economies of Europe have been devastated during WWII and Europe Japan are recovering and that USA could use more money for domestic purposes and NATO I Created new organization SETO south east trade organization Australia New Zeeland South Vietnam and etc never creates sense of community as did NATO But re ected Eisenhower s ambition to create democratic alliance with countries outside the Americas and in Europe I South Korea received a lot of military aid from the USA for the purpose of taking the pressure off of American forces because it is much cheaper to equip an Asian soldier than it is to transport them abroad Pakistani army grows enormously and tries to improve the quality of American policy gt make it cheaper for the USA to conduct operations abroad taking existing structures and strengthening them to make them stronger to stand up from themselves 0 Covert operations I Using secret operations were effective to accomplish USA goals at a lower cost 9 expansion of the CIA I Assured continued American economic growth new levels of domestic consumption consumption starts to increase and rise and there were times were other countries increased Gayder committee report all the soviet union GDP was only 13 of USA they equaled industrial capabilities o Solution build more submarines warfare material Dispersing military bases Construction of fallout shelters o Eisenhower agreed to increase missiles and to increase military bases because he believe that the USA already had the capabilities to build 0 Defense spending of GNP falls Unsuccessful 0 Physiological thing was undermined by the U2 incident and alliances but at the same time this will also create problems such as in the militaries aid became the most powerful sections of society which lead to military coups 0 Another important challenge third world nationalism Readings Eisenhower speech 0 Need to create balance between the old and the new 0 Calls for disarmament the avoid the concept of misplaced power 0 Intellectual technology has replaced the need for machinery other type of approach intellectual 0 Make agreements intellectually not with arms Thursday s Lecture Sukarno and Bandung Conference 0 Meeting of 29 Asian and African countries 0 Get rid of colonialism and its legacy neocolonialism preservation of white minority rule which are different forms of colonialism I Neocolonialism economic control around the world and Sukarno is being critical of this economic dominance o Nonalignment and SouthSouth cooperation I He is taking no sides between capitalism and communism I The most important division is between north industrial and south subjected to imperialism and were gaining their independence 0 The rise of revolutionary nationalism and Eisenhower s response I Tends to assume that any individual will be communists I Undermined the conference and forced all American allies to deny neutralism because it was part of a larger series of confrontations that occurred between USA and the third world I Saw neutrality as a force that could potentially endanger American capitalist ideals and nationalist movements will lead to communist movements he thought that it automatically meant that they will align to communism Mohammed Mossadeq o Nationalized holdings of AngloAmerican oil company I Measures to strengthen democratic institutions in Iran and wanted to end the rule of the Shai Try to produce a scheme of collective farming that will break out the system of land lord of institutions 0 Sought to strengthen democratic political institutions 0 Sought to replace feudal agriculture with collective farming Operation AIAX In Iran 0 Return Shah Reza Pahlavi to power 0 Creation of new Iranian oil company in which US has a bigger role 0 Longterm negative impact on US image in Iran Massadeq is a nationalistic but the USA see it as an act of socialism and ultimately aligning themselves to the Soviet Union to cause the fall of the Mossadeq government which will govern Iran according to constructive policies and will strengthen the communist party Prevent Iran from ever falling behind the Iron curtain part of covert operations to try to strengthen American in uence 9 secret operations BUT led to antiAmerican feelings in supporting the shai After he assumes power USA gives 0 Economic aid 0 Military aid It restored its original leader it restored democracy Debate on the intentions of the USA and if they genuinely believed that they were doing the right thing Gamal Abdul Nasser Egypt 0 Nasser was neutral and the USA tried to win Nasser to their side and the offered support to the Aswan Dam o Aswan Dam Give electrical power to Egypt 0 Czech Arms Deal Bought arms from Czechoslovakia and recognized the People s republic of China this contradicted the USA motives Then USA cancels the agreement 0 Suez Canal Nationalizes the Suez canal in response to the cancel of agreement to build the Aswan Dam in order to get the money to pay for the canal This led to triple intervention by Britain France and Israel and it fails because both USA and USSR support Nasser All three countries withdraw their troops from Egypt as a result Biggest winner was Nasser because he stood up for USA USSR France Britain and Israel 9 during the Suez crisis And this worried the Eisenhower administration He proved very skillful of taking advantage of gathering proper support 0 19489 USA recognized the idea to create the nation of Israel for international peace 0 Failure of Alpha Peace plane I To settle disputes of Israel and Arabs over Palestinian regions and access to waterways in the region I Nasser believe that the solution for these sort of disputes was through nationalism and began to spread nationalism in the region So the USA strengthen the conservative Arab regimes by creating prowestern and anticommunism in the region then the USA believed that they would be able to contain communism in the region The Eisenhower Doctrine 0 Fear the communism would exploit Middle Eastern nationalism I Because of its instability o The USA made a commitment to defend the Middle East against communist subversion o Enabled president to take military action without going to congress for consent continuing centralization of foreign policy making in the hands of the president 0 Eisenhower wanted to unite the countries of the middle east in the basis of capitalist ideals and asks that congress allow the president to dispatch military troops without the consent of congress if there is a crisis that arises in the region is able to pass in congress because the united states is so frightened by the threats of communism Intervention in Lebanon 0 Camille Chamoun I Chamoun sought another term in office but this was greeted by protests The protests is exactly the kind of instabilities that Eisenhower was concerned What Eisenhower eventually does is to send the marines to Lebanon and they supervise an election I Eisenhower sends marines to Lebanon but not to quell protests Supervise an election in which proUS Muslim president gained power 0 Fuad Chehab the idea to create conservative regimes in the middle east to being an alternative to the Nasser government I China exploit the idea that the USA was trying to overthrow governments around the world I Ultimately the Eisenhower itself was military oriented He believe that he could spread capitalist were nai39ve USA refuses to give up alliances of western and Israel and this creates tensions between Arab states and USA Conclusion that Nassirism was not communist it was nationalist Iacobo Arbenz Guzman Guatemala 0 Was determined to carry out economic reform and distribute wealth to the poor 0 Seizes 254000 acres form the United Fruit Company 0 Operation PBSuccess I Covert operations I Replaced them with Armas and establishes a military dictatorship but that was favorable to the American goals to the United Fruit company I They supported their military coup and created antiamerican feelings throughout the region CIA do 0 Weaken latin American nationalistic government through economic aid and raise the standards of living but this strategy did not turn out to be as effective as they hoped it would They took the aid and monopolized the aid and used it to manipulate it Fulgencio Batista Cuba 0 19569 the USA was more economically dominant all the way back to the Platt agreement 0 80 utilities 40 of sugar and mining Fidel Castro begins an assault on Fulgencio batista which was supported by the United States 0 His rise to power led to an American downfall between Cuba and USA relations nationalist revolution 0 USA began to train exiles to overthrow Castro s regime Bay of Pigs failure Eisenhower administration in efforts to limit administration in failure and their forces are stronger than there ever was USA never got weaker but continued to be stronger and stronger
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