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PSY 270 Chapter 3 notes

by: Samantha Grissom

PSY 270 Chapter 3 notes PSY 270

Samantha Grissom

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About this Document

These are the notes about fetal development during different stages of gestation.
Child Psychology
Class Notes
Prenatal, development, germinal, embyonic, fetal, fetus, trimesters
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern Mississippi.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 3: Prenatal Development Stages of Prenatal Development 1) Germinal Stage (fertility – implantations) ­ Cells divide and a blastocyst (bundle of cells) implants into the uterine wall ­ Cells have already differentiated ­ Cells inside the bundle become part of the embryo ­ Cells outside the bundle develop into placenta, umbilical cord, or blood cells 2) Embryonic Stage (1 or 2 weeks – 8 weeks) ­ Organ systems differentiate ­ Neural tube develops and nervous system develops quickly ­ 3 layers develop 1) Ectoderm­ outermost layer that differentiates into the nervous system, skin,  hair, teeth, and sensory organs 2) Endoderm­ innermost layer that differentiates into the digestive system, liver,  pancreas, and respiratory system 3) Mesoderm­ middle layer that differentiates into the circulatory system,  muscles, reproductive system, and excretory system ­ Week 3: the head and blood vessels develop ­ Week 4: neural tube starts to produce 400 million neurons daily ­ Week 7: sex chromosomes cause cells to differentiate sex organs ­ Week 8: neurons continue to transmit, limbs elongate, and facial features develop 3) Fetal Stage (8 weeks ­ birth) ­ Organs mature, and the baby gains weight and height ­ Neurons multiply and brain matures ­ Fetus starts to move for the first time So what’s pregnancy like? 3 trimesters: 1. First trimester (1­13 weeks) ­ Zygote implants into uterine wall ­ Maternal body changes: cervix thickens and secretes mucus to protect the embryo ­ Maternal symptoms: menstruation stops, breasts become tender, fatigue, and  nausea (morning sickness) ­ Weeks 9­12: cells differentiated to determine sex ­ 15­30% of women have miscarriages at this point 2. Second trimester (14­27 weeks) ­ Maternal body: uterus expands to house fetus ­ Maternal symptoms: baby bump shows, appetite increases, and energy restores ­ Weeks 16­18: fetal movement ­ Weeks 16­20: sex is more easily determined ­ Fetal development: hair develops, sucking thumbs, hiccups, eyes will open or  shut, perceives light and sound ­ Miscarriage rates drop 3. Third trimester (28 weeks­birth) ­ Organs continue to mature ­ Week 36: fetus “engages” and turns to position itself for birth ­ Fetal development: regular rest and active periods, crying, swallowing, continuing to suck thumbs What affects prenatal development? Environmental influences ­ Teratogens­ agents from the environment that may produce birth defects ­ Types of teratogens: 1) Maternal disease ­ Rubella ­ HIV 2) Environmental influences ­ Heavy metals ­ Radiation 3) Substance abuse ­ Alcohol ­ Smoking ­ Hormones ­ Drugs Diseases caused by environmental influences: 1) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) ­ Disease in which heavy drinking causes many abnormalities in a fetus and can be fatal ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Brain and body are smaller  ­ Facial features are abnormal ­ Child may become hyperactive or have learning disabilities Specific factors that influence prenatal development: 1) Cigarettes ­ Nicotine and carbon monoxide can cross the placenta ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Cognitive and behavioral development ­ Weigh less ­ Still born children ­ Shorter attention spans ­ Lower language scores 2) Maternal stress ­ Stress creates a secretion of hormones which passes through the placenta ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Low birth weight ­ Babies born prematurely ­ High miscarriage rates 3) Maternal malnutrition ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Lower birth weight ­ Babies born prematurely ­ Lower cognitive functions ­ Behavioral issues 4) Maternal obesity ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Neural tube defects ­ Stillbirth 5) Maternal age ­ Effects on the fetus: ­ Chromosomal abnormalities when a woman is 40 years or older 6) Poverty/lack of prenatal care 7) Fatherly factors (yeah, it’s not just the mother’s fault) ­ Age, smoking, and drugs  


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