PSY 270 Chapter 3 notes
PSY 270 Chapter 3 notes PSY 270
Popular in Child Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/07/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 3: Prenatal Development Stages of Prenatal Development 1) Germinal Stage (fertility – implantations) Cells divide and a blastocyst (bundle of cells) implants into the uterine wall Cells have already differentiated Cells inside the bundle become part of the embryo Cells outside the bundle develop into placenta, umbilical cord, or blood cells 2) Embryonic Stage (1 or 2 weeks – 8 weeks) Organ systems differentiate Neural tube develops and nervous system develops quickly 3 layers develop 1) Ectoderm outermost layer that differentiates into the nervous system, skin, hair, teeth, and sensory organs 2) Endoderm innermost layer that differentiates into the digestive system, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system 3) Mesoderm middle layer that differentiates into the circulatory system, muscles, reproductive system, and excretory system Week 3: the head and blood vessels develop Week 4: neural tube starts to produce 400 million neurons daily Week 7: sex chromosomes cause cells to differentiate sex organs Week 8: neurons continue to transmit, limbs elongate, and facial features develop 3) Fetal Stage (8 weeks birth) Organs mature, and the baby gains weight and height Neurons multiply and brain matures Fetus starts to move for the first time So what’s pregnancy like? 3 trimesters: 1. First trimester (113 weeks) Zygote implants into uterine wall Maternal body changes: cervix thickens and secretes mucus to protect the embryo Maternal symptoms: menstruation stops, breasts become tender, fatigue, and nausea (morning sickness) Weeks 912: cells differentiated to determine sex 1530% of women have miscarriages at this point 2. Second trimester (1427 weeks) Maternal body: uterus expands to house fetus Maternal symptoms: baby bump shows, appetite increases, and energy restores Weeks 1618: fetal movement Weeks 1620: sex is more easily determined Fetal development: hair develops, sucking thumbs, hiccups, eyes will open or shut, perceives light and sound Miscarriage rates drop 3. Third trimester (28 weeksbirth) Organs continue to mature Week 36: fetus “engages” and turns to position itself for birth Fetal development: regular rest and active periods, crying, swallowing, continuing to suck thumbs What affects prenatal development? Environmental influences Teratogens agents from the environment that may produce birth defects Types of teratogens: 1) Maternal disease Rubella HIV 2) Environmental influences Heavy metals Radiation 3) Substance abuse Alcohol Smoking Hormones Drugs Diseases caused by environmental influences: 1) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Disease in which heavy drinking causes many abnormalities in a fetus and can be fatal Effects on the fetus: Brain and body are smaller Facial features are abnormal Child may become hyperactive or have learning disabilities Specific factors that influence prenatal development: 1) Cigarettes Nicotine and carbon monoxide can cross the placenta Effects on the fetus: Cognitive and behavioral development Weigh less Still born children Shorter attention spans Lower language scores 2) Maternal stress Stress creates a secretion of hormones which passes through the placenta Effects on the fetus: Low birth weight Babies born prematurely High miscarriage rates 3) Maternal malnutrition Effects on the fetus: Lower birth weight Babies born prematurely Lower cognitive functions Behavioral issues 4) Maternal obesity Effects on the fetus: Neural tube defects Stillbirth 5) Maternal age Effects on the fetus: Chromosomal abnormalities when a woman is 40 years or older 6) Poverty/lack of prenatal care 7) Fatherly factors (yeah, it’s not just the mother’s fault) Age, smoking, and drugs