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Sociology 101

by: Ashley Prososki

Sociology 101 SOCI 101 002

Ashley Prososki
GPA 3.33
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About this Document

These notes talk about the research process involved in sociology and the different types of sociological perspectives.
Intro to Sociology
Laura Elizabeth Simon
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology, research




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Prososki on Wednesday September 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 101 002 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Laura Elizabeth Simon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/07/16
Intro. To Sociology- Week 1 8/30/16 Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective and Research Process  Sociology is the systematic study of human society and social interactions o Sociology can help us understand the social and structural origins of what is seemingly individualistic behavior  The Sociological imagination is the ability to see the relationships between individual experiences and larger society o Personal troubles o Public Issues  “Perspective taking”  Systematic observation brought about by social upheaval o Industrialization  The shift from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries  Factory work o Urbanization  A rapid increase in number of cities and population in cities rather than in rural areas  Producers to consumers  Seek to examine and understand why and how society was changing  Applying methods developed by natural sciences to study of society  Age of Enlightenment  Theory o Set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict social events  Provide framework and order  “Why”  Major theoretical perspectives o Functionalist o Conflict o Symbolic interactionism  Macro vs. Micro o Macrolevel analysis  Functionalism  Conflict o Microlevel analysis  Symbolic Interactionism  Functionalism o Based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system  Societal consensus  Shared common set of values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations  Interrelated parts each with a function that contributes to the overall stability of society o Development of social institutions because they help society survive  If one part struggles- all parts are affected o Robert K. Merton  Manifest functions  Intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit  Latent functions  Unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants  Dysfunctions  Undesirable consequences of any element of society  Examples:  Education 9/1/16  Conflict Perspectives o Groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle over control of scarce resources  Clashes between social groups o Karl Marx  Conflict necessary to produce social change o Max Weber  Power  The ability of a person within a social relationship to carry out his or her own will despite resistance from others  Prestige  A positive or negative social estimation of honor  Symbolic Interactionism o George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer  Society is the sum of interactions of individuals and groups  Emphasis on interaction and symbols o Symbols help people derive meaning from social interactions  Subjective reality o How people interpret the messages they receive influences their behavior Sociological Research Process  Types of Research o Quantitative  Data that can be measured numerically  Larger sample sizes o Qualitative  Interpretive descriptions to analyze meanings and patterns of social relationships  “Why”  Smaller samples, not generalizable  Data Hypotheses o Variable  Any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that vary  Independent variable o Presumed to be the cause of the relationship  Predictor  Dependent variable o Assumed to be caused by the independent variable  Predicted  Data Analysis o Sample o Validity  Extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measure what it is supposed to measure o Reliability  Extent to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or the same individuals over time  Research Methods o Research methods are specific strategies or techniques for systematically conducting research  Survey Research  Questionnaires; interviews  Secondary Analysis of Existing Data  Content analysis  Field Research  Participant observations; Ethnography  Experiments  Ethical Issues in Sociological Research o Maintain objectivity and integrity by disclosing all findings o Safeguard participants’ right to privacy and dignity, while protecting from harm o Protect confidentiality of participants and information o Acknowledge research collaboration and disclose financial support Chapter 2- Culture  Culture and Society in a Changing World o Culture  Knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person from one generation to the next in a human group or society  Ideas, behavior, material obsession  Society and culture interdependent  Sharing common culture simplifies day-to-day interactions 


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