HIST 307 Lecture Notes
HIST 307 Lecture Notes HIST 307
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Louisiana history
Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alaina Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 307 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by James Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Louisiana history in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
8/22 STUDY TERMS - EARLY AMERICANS IN LA & EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION • Watson Brake • Poverty Point • Caddo • Tunica • Atakapa • Natchez • Muskhogeans • Chitimacha • Animism • Tunica Treasure • Mercantilism • Alonso Alvarez de Pineda • Panfilo de Narvaez • Conquistadors • Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca • Hernando de Soto • New France • Coureurs de Bois • Father Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet • Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle • Henri de Tonti • Louis Phelypeaux, Count de Ponchatrain • Pierre la Moyne, Sieur d'Bienville • Louis Antoinette Juchereau de Saint-Denis • English Turn • Fort Maurepas (1700) at Biloxi • Fort de la Boulaye (1700) on lower Mississippi River • Fort Saint Louis (1702) at Mobile • New Fort Saint Louis (1711) at Mobile TIMELINE • Watson Break (3500BC) Watson Brake mounds • Poverty Point (1650-700BC) Mounds created by man Round objects are frequently found here Most important ancient civilization in Louisiana • Tchefunete (600BC-200AD) New ways to cook = pottery Shell middens • Hopewell and Marksville (200BC-400AD) Burial mounds • Troyville Cole Creek (400-1100AD) New weapons = bow and arrow Agriculture • Plaquemine Mississippian (1000-1500AD) Flat temple mounds • European Settlement (1699) • Native Inhabitants in Louisiana (1700) Historic Louisiana Indians ‣ Caddo • Nomadic people • Used horses ‣ Tunica • Small in number • Aggressive in nature ‣ Attakapas • Most aggressive group at the time • Cannibalistic rituals • Largest in number ‣ Natchez" • Most highly developed • Caught the most attention from Europeans • Structure in their society ‣ Muskogean • Fishermen ‣ Chitimacha • Fishermen About 15,000 Indians when the Europeans arrived How they lived ‣ Huts for housing - few Windows and doors, one door ‣ Elevated building for food storage ‣ followed the cycles of the seasons ‣ Herbal remedies and spiritual healing ‣ Hunting, trading, clothes making, music ‣ Stressed the honor system • Federally recognized Indian tribes in Louisiana Chitimacha Coushatta Jena Band Choctaw Tunica-Biloxi EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION • Colonial Louisiana history: anything prior to the Louisiana purchase French history Spanish history • Early Spanish exploration of the Gulf Coast Pineda (1519) ‣ Explored Florida ‣ Just explored close to the coast ‣ Didn't learn much about the people, plants, etc. - just a geographic map Narvaez (1527) ‣ Much more extensive than Pineda ‣ As many as 600 men and ships took part in this exploration ‣ Natural disasters and native Americans made their exploration difficult ‣ Native Americans led the Spanish into the swamps where they were not familiar; Spanish had armor and heavy weapons that were not effective in the swamp ‣ They melted down their armor and made nails, from there they made boats and sailed to Galveston ‣ Once they hit Texas, it was good because they had less native Americans, it was bad because there was no vegetation and natural resources ‣ Go into New Mexico and live among the native Americans they could find ‣ Eventually make it to Mexico City and settle there ‣ "La Relacion of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca" was the first map of the new world DeSoto (1539) ‣ Most famous for "discovering" the Mississippi River ‣ Lands in Florida and goes through the majority of the southeastern United States ‣ Encounter a hostile group of native Americans in Alabama; DeSoto and his men 2000 or more of them and continues moving forward ‣ Explore the river ‣ DeSoto passes away in 1542 along the bank of the river; his men had to hide his death because DeSoto portrayed himself as a god and doesn't want the native Americans to know he's died; they sink his body in the river ‣ His men created boats and sailed down the river until reaching the Gulf of Mexico and then sailed back to spanish territories ‣ Several people publish accounts of what they saw Native American population dwindled after the Spanish explorations because of the introduction to European diseases • Early French exploration of North America Trapping becomes a form of currency; different from the Spanish with gold and silver Marquette and Joliet (1673) ‣ Marquette was a priest that wanted to convert people to Christianity ‣ Joliet was a trapper ‣ Sailed into the territories of Arkansas and Mississippi ‣ Go back to the forts along the Great Lakes and share their stories with the coureurs de bois (trappers) La Salle (1682 & 1684) ‣ Exploring along the Great Lakes also ‣ Tries to find the river Marquette and Joliet had described ‣ Goes through the Illinois River and makes it to the Mississippi River and explored all the way down to the Gulf of Mexico ‣ He realized the importance of the river ‣ Has a Catholic ceremony and raises a cross and declares that all the lands connected to the river are now owned by the king of France and names the territory Louisiana ‣ The Spanish and native Americans didn't pay mind to his claim that this land was now owned by France ‣ Sometimes called the "Father of Louisiana" ‣ One of la salle's crashed ships were discovered in the 1990s De Tonti (1686, 1689, 1960-1999) ‣ La Salle and De Tonti were going to meet up at the mouth of the Mississippi River; la Salle over shoots the trip and lands in eastern Texas so they never meet up; de Tonti returns back to the Great Lakes; la Salle and his colonist settle and try to make a life where they are but they end up killing la Salle ‣ De Tonti wants to continue forward with la Salle's dream, but he has no money or power Iberville (1699) ‣ His family owned a large island near Montreal; they were granted royalty titles ‣ Wants to continue la Salle's dream also ‣ His brother was Bienville (most important person) ‣ They land off the coast of Alabama and Mississippi in search of the Mississippi River; they eventually find it ‣ Also referred to as the "Father of Louisiana" because he established the first colony ‣ Iberville sails back to France and leaves his colonists in Biloxi to live ‣ The capital is moved to Mobile in 1702 ‣ Iberville dies from yellow fever in Cuba First successful colony established was in Biloxi in 1699 (Fort Maurepas) • Population of first Louisiana Settlement 1700 - 150 1704 - 195 1706 - 85 1708 - 279 1710 - 178 8/31 STUDY TERMS - FRENCH COLONIAL LOUISIANA (1699-1763) • Jean Baptiste la Moyne, Sieur d'Bienville • Royal Colony • Proprietary Colony • Antoine Crozat • Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac • Superior Council • Fort Saint Jean Baptiste (1714) at Natchitoches • Louis Antoine Juchereau de Saint-Denis • Fort Rosalie (1716) at Natchez • John Law • Company of the Indies • New Orleans (1718) • Baton Rogue (1719) • Mississippi Bandits • Fille a la cassette (casket girls) • Ursuline Nuns • German Coast • Mississippi Bubble • Natchez Indian Uprising (1729-1731) • Chickasaw Indian Wars • Battle of Ackia (1736) • Pierre de Rigaud, the Marquis de Vaudreuil • Louis Billouart, Chevalier de Kerlerec • French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Code Noir/ Black Code (1724) • Maroons/ Marronage • Royal Colony (Louisiana before this point- land operated by royal government) VS a Proprietary Colony (land granted to individual people individually- more money is made this way) • Crozat Never comes to Louisiana, it's just an investment for him Born a peasant on a farm; land owner agreed to adopt Crozat when he was young and gave him an education; always had the sense to work for what you want still Wanted to introduce African slave trade in Louisiana Makes several changes in Louisiana • Appoints new governor (Cadillac); he founded Detroit; was put in charge of restructuring the colony He arrives at the capital in Mobile and this is what he finds: ‣ Didn't have enough food to sustain a colony ‣ "Not worth a straw" ‣ Wants to send off all of the women Cadillac sets up a governmental body, the Superior Council; they control the day-to-day activities; they pass laws and also serve a judicial function Expands the colony to include new areas (Natchitoches, Fort St. Jean Baptiste); St Dennis oversees the fort and saw potential for himself in the settlement; he proposes there be trade between Natchitoches and Spanish territories- trade flourishes; Constructs Fort Rosalie in Natchez; established for the purpose of trade and relations with the Natchez Indians • John Law Assumes the role Crozat previously held French nobility; had enough wealth and influence to do whatever he wanted; gambler Begins to make a career out of financial issues; the concept of banking was still a new idea but he starts introducing paper currency and other forms of currency Establishes the Mississippi Company; begins to sell stock in it which becomes very popular because it was portrayed very positively; spread like wildfire The "Mississippi Bubble" burst; stock becomes basically worthless He's run out of town and flees; administrators reorganize the company and name it the Company of the Indies/Company of the West; becomes successful again and the money is used to build up Louisiana and Mississippi 3 Things most responsible for the colony being successful ‣ Establishment of New Orleans ‣ Immigration • Provided service in the colony • Prostitutes, prisoners, "casket girls", Ursuline nuns, Swiss soldiers, German farmers settle on the "German coast"/West Bank of the Mississippi River ‣ African Slaves (1719) • First slave ship arrives with 200 slaves • Nearly every slave brought to the colony by the French came between 1719-1731 • Very important to the construction of the city of New Orleans • Most came from the region of Senegambia • Slave from Congo (Louis Congo) was appointed to executioner and was in charge of carrying out the punishment of slaves; he didn't want the position but was forced to accept • Code Noir (1724) A slave owner had to provide food, shelter, clothing, and religion Owners who beat their slaves too aggressively could be charged under this code Rights were granted to the slaves; not to protect them, but to protect the system; they didn't want slaves to get agitated and revolt Slaves who displayed loyalty could be rewarded Slaves could be granted freedom if they agreed to fight • Louisiana in 1720 = more than 1,000 • Louisiana in 1731 = less than 8,000 *half of which were slaves* • New Orleans = first major settlement in the New World where half of the population were African slaves FROM ITS VERY FOUNDING 9/7 • Natchez Indian Uprising (1729-1731) • Slavery was not a rigid system at this point; slaves had the freedom to conduct trades and were relied upon • Trade of fur was the main currency at the time; traded with horses, liquor, decorative ornamentation for dress, etc. • Culture and language was being exchanged amongst French, Indians, and Slaves • When the Spanish arrive, they are much more structured; markets became established and more controlled • Three Royal Governors Bienville (1733-1743) ‣ Most focused on relations with the Indians; Chickasaw were the most hostile that he tried to suppress ‣ Chickasaw Indian Wars: Bienville had forced from north and south to come attack them from all directions; leads to Battle of Ackia; the French eventually sought peace ‣ Eventually retires and moves to Paris Vaudreuil (1743-1753) ‣ Bienville's replacement ‣ Marquis; he was sophisticated; interested in celebrating the life in the colony and not so much focused on the business of the colony ‣ Mardi Gras becomes an elaborate celebration during this period ‣ Him and his wife are accused of insubordination; tries to restrict access to good and his wife tries to control the overseeing of the goods ‣ He gets promoted to governor of Canada Kerlerec (1753) ‣ Wanted to do things right; wanted to pay back things Vaudreuil had neglected ‣ French/Indian war breaks out (1756); no supply ships come into Louisiana during this time, forcing the colony to get by on its own ‣ Circumstances overshadowed his term ‣ France loses the war; rather than losing control of Louisiana to the British, they give the land to their Spanish allies • Moral Climate Not very religious; "free for all" Why? ‣ "Illegitimate women"- not French women were much more common ‣ Fur trappers made up the majority of men; they were more prone to live a laid back lifestyle and have relations with illegitimate women ‣ People of questionable character had been sent to the colony ‣ The priests that were sent there were at conflict with each other; didn't really care ‣ People gathered at taverns to drink, smoke, and gamble • Everyday life in French Colonial Louisiana Waterways were very important for trade and transport ‣ Illinois and Louisiana ‣ Caribbean and Louisiana Horses existed increasingly, but wagons and carriages were not common Trade was most often done by bartering; no paper money or coins at this time Slavery was an important point of the colony, but it wasn't wide-scale Appearance was important; more concerned about clothing and dress than hard work Superior Council served as the governing body; they handled disputes French had a feeling of superiority over the native Americans Thousands of slaves, but less than 200 reached slavery Had to limit the number of occupants who could be an Innkeeper; became the most competitive license to get; began to tax Inns very heavily General less interest in maintaining the day-to-day things necessary to grow the colony; due to poor leadership Education and health care was very limited; provided by the church A lot of the power within the colony didn't reside just in New Orleans; the German Coast was also very powerful French colonial Louisiana is from 1699 when the capital is built but takes off in the 1700s with New Orleans; it was an undeveloped settlement with poor leadership and little structure; no cash crops; lazy colonists; care free lifestyle; hard work was not emphasized 9/12 STUDY TERMS- SPANISH COLONIAL LOUISIANA • Treaty of Fountainbleu (1762) • Treaty of Paris (1763) • British West Florida • Isle of Orleans • Revolt of 1768 • Antonio de Ulloa • Acadians • Islenos • Alejandro "Bloody" O'Reilly • Cabildo • James Willing Expedition • Bernardo de Gálvez • "Yo Solo" • Oliver Pollock • "Kantocks" • Esteban Rodriguez Miro • Good Friday - March 21, 1788 • December 8, 1894 • Don Andres Almonaster Y Rojas • French Revolution (1789) • Pere Antoine (Antonio de Sedella) • Pinckney's Treaty (1795) • Fransisco Luis Hector de Carondelta • Treaty of San Ildefanso (1800) • Dionesio Braud • Gilbert Guillemard • Coarctation • Marie Therese Metoyer - CoinCoin • Etienne de Bore • 7 years war Between France and Great Britain (both sides had native Americans on their side) The British are more successful than the French Once the French sense the British will win the war, the French chose to give the territory to Spain rather than lose it to the British Spain had everything west of the Mississippi River and a small sliver on the east side; the British portion on the east side of the Mississippi River became "west Florida" As of 1763, Spain now controls what used to be French Louisiana • Spanish Louisiana Spanish Inquisition ‣ People were tortured until they voiced their beliefs for the Roman Catholic Church The people of Louisiana wanted to remain French and their laid back lives; they didn't want to be Spanish The customs and language of the French remained throughout the land The Spanish never threaten their culture; no Spanish presence was around; the colonists' fears were relieved for the time being Shortly after, a letter arrives saying a Spanish governor will arrive to take control • First Acadians arrive in LA 1764-1765 From the north Settled in the Mississippi River north of the German coast; upriver of New Orleans but south of Baton Rouge • Antonio de Ulloa New Spanish governor for Louisiana Military officer but most known for his writings and professional science and astrology work outside of the military Arrives in Louisiana in March of 1766 with less than 100 soldiers Wants to conduct experiments near the river tracking the stores, etc. He doesn't remove the French flag; continues to rule through French administrators Leaves Nola and visits all the other colonies; reorganized things for their own good Issues new trade restrictions that the colonists did not like; ended up fueling the growth of the colony and being beneficial; he was trying to do the right thing regardless that they were mad at him Has a young bride from South America; colonists planned a ceremony; Ulloa shuns the colonists from any such events • The LA Revolt of 1768 Timeline Spring 1763 - LA transferred to the Spanish Fall 1764 - news of transfer arrives in New Orleans Summer 1765 - Ulloa appointed governor of Louisiana March 1766 Ulloa arrives in New Orleans October 29, 1768 - Special meeting of Superior Council November 1, 1768 - Ulloa leaves New Orleans August 18, 1769 - O'Reilly arrives in Louisiana August 21, 1769 - Conspirators arrested October 24, 1769 - Conspirators executed • Alejandro "Bloody: O'Reilly Ulloa's replacement Gains the nickname "bloody" because he quickly had conspirators killed after taking office; these people became martyrs and looked up to from the French He continues the trade restrictions Ulloa had put into place He leaves office after a few months and his replacement continues forward his plans to reorganize the colony The replacement governor marries into one of the original families of the colony; eases the relationship of the governor with his people • 1762-1777 Census 1762 - 7,500 1769 - 13,500 1777 - 17,926 • Bernardo de Gálvez Very young when he was appointed govenor 35 at the time of the American Revolution; not much respect among British soldiers because of his lack of experience • Oliver Pollock Came to Louisiana from Philadelphia in 1769 Quickly gains popularity among the people Becomes successful business man in Louisiana; establishes strong ties between New Orleans and Philadelphia • Louisina and the American Revolution 1769- Oliver Pollock resettles in new orleans Jan 1777- Gálvez appointed govenor of Louisiana 1777- Pollock appointed American commerce agent at New Orleans 1778- James Willing Expedition April 1779- Spain joins forces with the American colonies (previous to this they were neutral) Sept 21, 1779- Gálvez captures Baton Rouge Oct 5, 1779- Spain take control of Natchez March 14, 1780- Gálvez captures mobile May 10, 1781- Spain captures Pensecola Treaty of Peace of 1783: All of East and West Florida returned to Spain • Battle of Pensacola 1781 Gálvez wanted to push the assault forward but the Spanish leaders said no Gálvez decides he's ready to attack and sends ships into Pensecola Bay The turning point in the battle was one of the magazines where bullets were carried blew up and killed half of the fort of soldiers that were there Gálvez is seen as the hero of the battle Bernardo de Gálvez = "Yo Solo" Creole= not brisith; applies to the French and Spanish people of Louisiana
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