GEOG 1001 8.29.16
GEOG 1001 8.29.16 Geog 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Basinger on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Nicholas Dunning in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Introduction to Physical Geography 8.29.16 Atmosphere and Energy Budgets Radiation Balance: Air and ocean currents are used to transfer heat from areas of surplus to places with deficit o Changes seasonally due to Earth’s tilt Global Heat Transport: Difference in water temperatures o 25% ocean, 75% atmosphere o El Niño events (also cause a lot of rain in the La Nina years by the Gulf of Mexico) Instability: Temperature and Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere Radiation Gains and Loses o The atmosphere is not transparent Clouds create a blockage of radiation Clouds have high albedo, trap long – wave radiation, and reflect short – wave radiation QUIZ QUESTION #6: Surface insolation on Earth is strongest… In subtropical deserts Mean annual insolation at Earth’s surface o Insolation at Earth’s surface is impacted by latitude but also influenced by cloud cover. There is extreme cloud cover over equatorial regions which makes insolation much lower than expected. However, there are little to no clouds over subtropical deserts (Sahara Desert for example) which makes insolation highest in these places Long – wave radiation decreases as you move poleward Effects of latitude on air o Ground surfaces are heated less at higher latitudes; hence air temperatures are lower. Insolation varies more seasonally at higher latitudes – so do air temperatures Examples: Salvador, Brazil has a latitude of about 13 degrees south. The temperature never varies far from 80 degrees Fahrenheit. In Barrow, Alaska the latitude is about 71 degrees north. The temperature varies from around -20 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter to about 40 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. QUIZ QUESTION #7: Regarding maritime influence on climate, which statement is true? Lower annual temperature range compared to a continental location at the same latitude Higher altitudes can reduce surface air temperatures independent of latitude Land heats up and cools faster than water o Continental Locations Temperature conditions are more extreme, less evaporation (lower latent heat), surface is opaque, land has a lower specific heat, and land has no mixing between layers o Ocean Locations Temperature conditions are moderate, greater evaporation (higher latent heat), surface of water is transparent, water has a higher specific heat, and water has mobility and mixes in ocean currents The 10 Fundamental Principles in Meteorology and Climatology 1. Solar inclination and concentration of insolation are directly correlated. As solar inclination (I) increases, so does the intensity of insolation. Maximum insolation occurs at the SSP (I = 90º). 2. Heat flows down a thermal gradient, from warmer to cooler regions. The rate of heat flow is proportional to the thermal gradient; it flows faster as the gradient increases. 3. All objects with a surface temperature exceeding 0 K emit radiant energy. 4. To a large degree, the air temperature is driven by ground surface temperature. Air warms because the underlying ground warms, cools because the ground cools. 5. As the latitude increases, the mean annual temperature decreases and the annual temperature range increases. Thus, seasonality increase poleward. 6. Land heats up and cools of faster than water; water has a very high specific heat capacity and large thermal inertia. 7. Warmer air has a greater capacity to hold water vapor than cooler air. 8. Rising (ascending) air parcels expand and cool adiabatically, subsiding (descending) air parcels are compressed and warm adiabatically. 9. Rising air is associated with Low pressure, cloud formation and precipitation; subsiding air is associated with High pressure, cloudless/rainless conditions, and low relative humidity. 10.Near the earth’s surface, winds flow down the pressure gradient in a direction nearly perpendicular to the isobars.
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