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Chapter 25- week 4 notes

by: Kaeli

Chapter 25- week 4 notes BIOL 102 001

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Protocells, mass extinction, time periods,
Biological Principles II
Mihaly Czako
Class Notes
protocells, Biology, extinctions
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Mihaly Czako in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Chapter 25 Notes  Current questions o Chemical and physical processes on early earth may have produced may have  produced simple cells  Cause of abiotic synthesis of organic molecules  First compounds possibly synthesized in deep sea vents by volcanic  activity o Hydrocarbons are present  Also present in meteorites o Early ocean was acidic  Possibly in the atmosphere  Small molecules into macromolecules  RNA monomers from simple molecules  Small organic molecules polymerize when concentrated in hot sand,  clay, or rock o Protocell formation  May have formed from fluid filled vesicles with a membrane­like structure  In water, lipids can spontaneously form vesicles with a lipid bilayer o Like a bubble, and similar to the cellular membrane in structure o Adding clay greatly increases the rate of vesicle formation  Vesicles exhibit simple reproduction and metabolism and maintain a  chemical environment separate from external  o Vesicles have the potential to uptake RNA  Even so, still not a proper cell  Whole thing must be self­replicating  First genetic material was likely RNA  Ribozymes can catalyze many reactions  o Example­ self reproduction o Self­reproducing RNA molecules would leave better molecules  Vesicles containing self­reproducing RNA molecules are protocells  Fossil Record reveals changes in history of Earth o Formed by sedimentary rocks deposited in layers (strata)  Other rocks may cover the strata  Volcano eruption leads to metamorphosis o Biased towards species that...  Existed for a long time  Were very populous  Had hard parts   Shells and bones and such o Ages of fossils are found by layers  Radiometric dating  Based on isotopes and their half­lives o Percentage of daughter isotope vs parent isotope  Historic data on CO2 levels  Varies based on even diet  Up to 75,000 years old  o After that, other isotopes are used 


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