Week 4 notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Psyc 101 Week 4 Notes, Human Development and Sensing our world Neurons Some visual neurons light up only with specific things Sense is very personal o Sense is categorical Seeing is done with the brain as much as the eyes o True or false? Hearing colors and seeing sounds o Look up o Actually a disorder, not always drugs Synthesinesia Senses The ability to select features from the environment and hold that information Principles of perception o Signal detection theory Thresholds vary, depending on motivation, etc. Matter of intensity and decision making process Hit or miss Measured noticeable differences o Trichromatic color theory Red, green, and blue cones respond proportion to that of the environment Afterimages not explained Down up o Opponent process theory Blue/yellow Red/Green Black/White See afterimages Works w/trichromatic “Top down” Explains colorblindness Every piece of info has to be useful o Otherwise it is “turned off” Perception interprets information o Depends on moods, hunger, background, experiences, etc. o Must have an experience with the stimuli for it to be valued Action potential o Neurons are waiting to fire o When we say “I know it” decrease action potential Diminished sensitivity o Continued stimuli will not be noticed Transduction o Information > Action potential Weber’s law o Depends on a fraction of intensity and difference What we experience visually occurs in the brain o Brain takes the information & interprets o Specific neurons = brain activity Called feature detectors 4 types Simple, complex, and hypercomplex cells Gestalt Laws of grouping o Similarity o Continuity o Proximity o Closure o Figureground Hearing Three properties o Height of sound wave / loudness Decibels o Frequency / Pitch Hertz o Purity Complexity of wave Mixture of frequencies, timber, etc. Middle ear o Tiny bones Hammer Anvil Stirrup Inner ear o Semicircular canals Assist with balance o Cochlea Basilar membrane Hair cells Pain perception Skin: Nociceptors o Temperature o Chemical irritation o Pressure o Largest contact sensors o Perceived by brain (hippocampus) o Influenced by environment Touch: o Provides a profile of sensitivity o Depends on tactile simulation o Varies in sensitivity o Repeated information Where you were touched Brain part more adaptable o Gate control theory: Spinal cord controls pain signals Involve thoughts & feelings relating to pain as well “I should hurt right now” Endorphins Control pain Release reduces pains Smell and taste Tongues are sectional o Taste right next to memory Silla in lining of nasal cavity o Come into contact induces transduction Human Development Process begins before birth o Temperament is visible in the womb Developing fetus o Germinal stage (03 weeks) o Embryotic stage (38 weeks) Organ development o Fetal stage (936) Bones develop By 12 weeks heartbeat can be heard Head grows to 25% of adult weight Because large heads evolutionarily beneficial Neural migration Tetragons are most effective on the brain Stress leads to mental disorders o Prenatal programming leads to healthier babies Maternal instinct is to eat what the babies want If they don’t, psychological disorders are likely Flu can lead to defects Developing infant and child o Early motor development Sensorimotor stage (Piaget) 02 Object permanence o Just because you don’t see it doesn’t mean that it’s not there o Not occurring by 910 months shows bad environment Used to measure development o Early sensory development 5 senses develop at different rates Hearing developed at birth Experience is critical Held more ~ later walking Depth perception o Visual cliff 89 months walking with assistance First year first step 2 years walking comfortably o Neural development (through age six) Synaptic pruning effects brain Learning from 26 makes brain most developed o Vygotsky Learning through assistance Cognitive assistance o Kohlberg Heinz dilemma Moral development Preconventional level Avoid punishment or maximize rewards Children Conventional Relationships and lawfulness Adults Post conventional Doing something illegal but accepting consequences Most people don’t get to this level o Ascension depends on moral code o Thomas and Chess Personality development Temperament Easy (40%) o Predictable Difficult (10%) o Unpredictable o Most stable adults Slowtowarm (15%) o “Work for their love” o Consistency changes Uncategorized (35%) o Attachment Secure Insecure Disorganized o Emotional development Attachment goes beyond basic needs Monkey study (Harry Harlow) Wire vs cloth Cloth offered comfort Monkeys with only wire in the cage were basic needs mothers Touch therapy Effective in comfort Decreased heart rate Developing adolescent o Pruning is done by age 12 o Physical o Social Ebb and flow Frontal lobes developing o Emotional o Cognitive Learning is constant Developing adult
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