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Week 3 Notes

by: Cara Cahalan

Week 3 Notes PSYC/CYAF 471

Cara Cahalan
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Lectures 5 (Male Anatomy and Physiology) and 6 (Male Reproductive Health)
Human Sexuality
Rosemary Esseks
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
9.6  Male Anatomy: External Sex Organs  Penis – parts  Root – base of penis, attaching it to pelvic bones  Shaft – length of penis, between glans and where penis joins rest of body  Glans – head of penis; filled with nerve endings  Foreskin – loose hood of skin over glans  Urethral orifice – opening through which urine and semen are voided  Circumcision – surgical removal of penile foreskin  Part of religious/ethnic identify for some groups throughout history and currently  Performed in the United States since late 1800s for health reasons  Currently performed on majority of male newborns in the U.S.  Arguments for:  Custom  Health benefits – cleanliness, reduced rates of STIs including HIV, urinary tract infections, and penile cancer  Arguments against:  Any surgery carries risk of infection/hemorrhage  American Academy of Pediatrics and CDC now assert benefits outweigh risks  Penis- internal structures  Cavernous bodies – two, top side of penis; engorge with blood during erection  Spongy body – underside of penis; also engorges with blood during erection  Penile urethra – hollow tube that conducts urine and semen outside of the body  Penis size  Average 3-4 inches when flaccid (not erect), 5-6 when erect  Larger not associated with greater sexual satisfaction  Size can be changed only by surgery, but results tend to be dissatisfactory (e.g., erections point down, lumps)  Scrotum  Lies outside of the body because sperm production requires temperatures lower than inside body cavity  May hang loosely from body or move closer depending on temperature and sexual stimulation  Tunica dartos – inner layer of scrotum which, along with muscles of spermatic chord, moves scrotum up and down  Perineum- between genitals and anus  Kegel exercises:  Involve practicing tightening and relaxing pelvic floor muscles  Identified by stopping stream of urine  Can improve ejaculatory control, strength of orgasm, and overall genital sensation  Male Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs  Testes – male gonad; produces sperm and hormones  Process of descent:  Occurs during fetal development; move through inguinal canal from back of abdominal wall to scrotum  Cryptorchidism – condition in which testes fail to descend  Testes – 2 inches wide, 1 inch long; egg-shaped. Parts include:  Seminiferous tubules – coils responsible for sperm production  Interstitial (Leydig’s) cells – produce testosterone; between seminiferous tubules  Epididymis – comma-shaped structures lying over testes; store sperm  Spermatogenesis – process by which sperm are formed  Generally begins around age 10  Takes 72 days total  300 million mature per day  Spermatogonium  Immature sperm  Develop in outer lining of seminiferous tubules, then move towards center  Spermatozoa – mature sperm cells. Parts include:  Head – contains chromosomes and enzymes to penetrate egg  Mid-piece – generates energy  Flagellum – tail; provide propulsion  Spermatic chord – attaches to tests, which are suspended on it. Parts include:  Cremasteric muscle fibers – move testes up and down as needed  Vas deferens:  Tubes that carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicles  About 18 inches long  Seminal vesicles – 2 inches long. Add secretions to sperm, making up 60-70% of volume of semen. Secretions:  Include fructose, energizing sperm  Are alkaline, to counteract acidity of vagina  Contain prostaglandins, causing contractions in female productive tract to help move sperm  Seminal vesicles merge with the vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts, moving sperm into…  Prostate gland – adds alkaline secretions as seminal fluid passes through the urethra  Cowper’s (or bulbourethral) gland:  Adds mucus and more alkaline secretions to seminal fluid  Fluid may appear prior to ejaculation and contains some sperm  Ejaculation and Orgasm  Seminal fluid (semen) – one ejaculation contains about 200-500 million sperm, comprising 1% of its volume  Retrograde ejaculation:  Semen flows into bladder instead of out of body  Harmless but can signal medical problem  Nocturnal emission – reported by 90% of men and 40% of women 9.8 Male Reproductive Health  Penile Health o Smegma  Substance appearing under foreskin and clitoral hood, comprised of secretions and dead skin cell  Can cause infection o Penile injuries – can be caused by sexual devices (e.g., “cock rings”), vacuum cleaners, or excess weight placed on penis during intercourse o Priapism  Painful and enduring erection  Can be caused by drugs (e.g., ED medications, cocaine, marijuana, blood thinners)  Without treatment can cause tissue damage  Testicular Health o Inguinal hernia  Occurs when intestines protrude into pathway taken by descending testes  Damages intestines o Testicular torsion  Twisting of testes on spermatic chord  Causes severe pain o Testicular cancer  Most common form of cancer in males 15-44  Often few symptoms until is advanced  Usually appears as painless mass or general hardness of testes  One of the most curable forms of cancer  Prostate Health o Benign prostatic hypertrophy – age-related enlargement of prostate  May cause difficulty urinating and/or increased urinary frequency (e.g., at night)  Can help to reduce fluids (especially at night), avoid caffeine and alcohol, increase activity, and don’t “hold it” too long  May be treated with medication or surgery if causes frequent UTIs or damage to bladder or kidneys o Prostate cancer  One of most (second) common cancers in males  80% of cases are in men over age 65  Twice as common in African Americans – recommended to begin screening at age 45  Treatments  Include “watchful waiting” (doing nothing), surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy  May cause ED and urinary retention difficulties  Male Breast Health o Male breasts serve no apparent function o Gynecomastia  Male breast enlargement  Can be due to marijuana use or hormonal imbalance o Male breast cancer  Uncommon. 1 in 1,000 – lifetime risk  Often not detected until it is advanced  Andropause o Reduction in testosterone in males over 70 o Can cause decreased sex drive and muscle strength, fatigue, and moodiness o Testosterone replacement therapy can be helpful for men with demonstrated testosterone deficits and associated symptoms, but may accelerate growth of prostate cancer  Male Body Image o Male physical ideal has changed substantially in the last 50 years  1970s and earlier – male sex symbols tend to have realistic body types, body hair  1980s to present – male sex symbols often very muscular, hairless, shirtless  Changes due in part to increased focus on fitness, advertising addressing male body insecurities o Muscle dysmorphia – subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (similar to OCD)  Unrealistic concern that one’s body is underside/lacks muscle  Preoccupation causes distress and/or dysfunction (e.g., excessive amount of time/money spent on exercising)  Associated with increased risk of steroid use and suicide  Rates are increasing  Treated with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and cognitive-behavioral therapy o Anabolic steroid use  Involves consumption of synthetic androgens (sex hormones)  Excess testosterone is converted to estrogen  Can cause liver damage, increase cholesterol, testicular shrinkage, gynecomastia, behavioral changes (e.g., aggression, increased risk of suicide) o Dietary supplements – generally provide inferior nutrition compared to food  Protein – can contribute to dehydration  Whey protein – only supplement that seems to increase muscle mass, but same benefit can be derived from drinking milk  Dietary supplements do not need to be approved by or registered with the FDA, thus regulation is much weaker than for medications o Plastic surgery  Can include abdominal sculpting, pectoral or calf implants, liposuction  Expensive (not covered by insurance) and includes risks of bleeding, infection, anesthesia reactions, nerve damage, blood clot/stroke, asymmetry  Not recommended for muscle dysmorphia as concerns are not reality-based anyway


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