Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes PSYC/CYAF 471
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
9.6 Male Anatomy: External Sex Organs Penis – parts Root – base of penis, attaching it to pelvic bones Shaft – length of penis, between glans and where penis joins rest of body Glans – head of penis; filled with nerve endings Foreskin – loose hood of skin over glans Urethral orifice – opening through which urine and semen are voided Circumcision – surgical removal of penile foreskin Part of religious/ethnic identify for some groups throughout history and currently Performed in the United States since late 1800s for health reasons Currently performed on majority of male newborns in the U.S. Arguments for: Custom Health benefits – cleanliness, reduced rates of STIs including HIV, urinary tract infections, and penile cancer Arguments against: Any surgery carries risk of infection/hemorrhage American Academy of Pediatrics and CDC now assert benefits outweigh risks Penis- internal structures Cavernous bodies – two, top side of penis; engorge with blood during erection Spongy body – underside of penis; also engorges with blood during erection Penile urethra – hollow tube that conducts urine and semen outside of the body Penis size Average 3-4 inches when flaccid (not erect), 5-6 when erect Larger not associated with greater sexual satisfaction Size can be changed only by surgery, but results tend to be dissatisfactory (e.g., erections point down, lumps) Scrotum Lies outside of the body because sperm production requires temperatures lower than inside body cavity May hang loosely from body or move closer depending on temperature and sexual stimulation Tunica dartos – inner layer of scrotum which, along with muscles of spermatic chord, moves scrotum up and down Perineum- between genitals and anus Kegel exercises: Involve practicing tightening and relaxing pelvic floor muscles Identified by stopping stream of urine Can improve ejaculatory control, strength of orgasm, and overall genital sensation Male Anatomy: Internal Sex Organs Testes – male gonad; produces sperm and hormones Process of descent: Occurs during fetal development; move through inguinal canal from back of abdominal wall to scrotum Cryptorchidism – condition in which testes fail to descend Testes – 2 inches wide, 1 inch long; egg-shaped. Parts include: Seminiferous tubules – coils responsible for sperm production Interstitial (Leydig’s) cells – produce testosterone; between seminiferous tubules Epididymis – comma-shaped structures lying over testes; store sperm Spermatogenesis – process by which sperm are formed Generally begins around age 10 Takes 72 days total 300 million mature per day Spermatogonium Immature sperm Develop in outer lining of seminiferous tubules, then move towards center Spermatozoa – mature sperm cells. Parts include: Head – contains chromosomes and enzymes to penetrate egg Mid-piece – generates energy Flagellum – tail; provide propulsion Spermatic chord – attaches to tests, which are suspended on it. Parts include: Cremasteric muscle fibers – move testes up and down as needed Vas deferens: Tubes that carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicles About 18 inches long Seminal vesicles – 2 inches long. Add secretions to sperm, making up 60-70% of volume of semen. Secretions: Include fructose, energizing sperm Are alkaline, to counteract acidity of vagina Contain prostaglandins, causing contractions in female productive tract to help move sperm Seminal vesicles merge with the vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts, moving sperm into… Prostate gland – adds alkaline secretions as seminal fluid passes through the urethra Cowper’s (or bulbourethral) gland: Adds mucus and more alkaline secretions to seminal fluid Fluid may appear prior to ejaculation and contains some sperm Ejaculation and Orgasm Seminal fluid (semen) – one ejaculation contains about 200-500 million sperm, comprising 1% of its volume Retrograde ejaculation: Semen flows into bladder instead of out of body Harmless but can signal medical problem Nocturnal emission – reported by 90% of men and 40% of women 9.8 Male Reproductive Health Penile Health o Smegma Substance appearing under foreskin and clitoral hood, comprised of secretions and dead skin cell Can cause infection o Penile injuries – can be caused by sexual devices (e.g., “cock rings”), vacuum cleaners, or excess weight placed on penis during intercourse o Priapism Painful and enduring erection Can be caused by drugs (e.g., ED medications, cocaine, marijuana, blood thinners) Without treatment can cause tissue damage Testicular Health o Inguinal hernia Occurs when intestines protrude into pathway taken by descending testes Damages intestines o Testicular torsion Twisting of testes on spermatic chord Causes severe pain o Testicular cancer Most common form of cancer in males 15-44 Often few symptoms until is advanced Usually appears as painless mass or general hardness of testes One of the most curable forms of cancer Prostate Health o Benign prostatic hypertrophy – age-related enlargement of prostate May cause difficulty urinating and/or increased urinary frequency (e.g., at night) Can help to reduce fluids (especially at night), avoid caffeine and alcohol, increase activity, and don’t “hold it” too long May be treated with medication or surgery if causes frequent UTIs or damage to bladder or kidneys o Prostate cancer One of most (second) common cancers in males 80% of cases are in men over age 65 Twice as common in African Americans – recommended to begin screening at age 45 Treatments Include “watchful waiting” (doing nothing), surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy May cause ED and urinary retention difficulties Male Breast Health o Male breasts serve no apparent function o Gynecomastia Male breast enlargement Can be due to marijuana use or hormonal imbalance o Male breast cancer Uncommon. 1 in 1,000 – lifetime risk Often not detected until it is advanced Andropause o Reduction in testosterone in males over 70 o Can cause decreased sex drive and muscle strength, fatigue, and moodiness o Testosterone replacement therapy can be helpful for men with demonstrated testosterone deficits and associated symptoms, but may accelerate growth of prostate cancer Male Body Image o Male physical ideal has changed substantially in the last 50 years 1970s and earlier – male sex symbols tend to have realistic body types, body hair 1980s to present – male sex symbols often very muscular, hairless, shirtless Changes due in part to increased focus on fitness, advertising addressing male body insecurities o Muscle dysmorphia – subtype of body dysmorphic disorder (similar to OCD) Unrealistic concern that one’s body is underside/lacks muscle Preoccupation causes distress and/or dysfunction (e.g., excessive amount of time/money spent on exercising) Associated with increased risk of steroid use and suicide Rates are increasing Treated with SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and cognitive-behavioral therapy o Anabolic steroid use Involves consumption of synthetic androgens (sex hormones) Excess testosterone is converted to estrogen Can cause liver damage, increase cholesterol, testicular shrinkage, gynecomastia, behavioral changes (e.g., aggression, increased risk of suicide) o Dietary supplements – generally provide inferior nutrition compared to food Protein – can contribute to dehydration Whey protein – only supplement that seems to increase muscle mass, but same benefit can be derived from drinking milk Dietary supplements do not need to be approved by or registered with the FDA, thus regulation is much weaker than for medications o Plastic surgery Can include abdominal sculpting, pectoral or calf implants, liposuction Expensive (not covered by insurance) and includes risks of bleeding, infection, anesthesia reactions, nerve damage, blood clot/stroke, asymmetry Not recommended for muscle dysmorphia as concerns are not reality-based anyway
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