EPS 101: Plate Tectonics
EPS 101: Plate Tectonics EPS 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Pennington on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPS 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Yemane Asmerom in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see How the Earth Works-An Introduction to Geology in Earth and Planetary Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Plate Tectonics Tuesday, September 6, 2016 11:29 AM Continental Drift: Proposed by Alfred Wegner in 1912. Called the supercontinent "Pangea". The idea of continental drift was not accepted until the 1960s. Ancient Evidence of Plate Tectonics: Continental ﬁt: South America and Africa can be ﬁtted like a puzzle. Similar rocks and formations across Atlantic: Mountains trail off onto other continents. Similar fossils: S. American reptile fossils found in Africa, Australian plants found on Antarctica. Modern Evidence of Plate Tectonics: Magnetic stripes on ocean ﬂoor: when magma ﬂows out of a mid-ocean ridge, magnetic minerals align to magnetic North. The magnetic north changes, though, and the stripes are caused by a change in polarity. (700,000 years ago, the magnetic north was South.) Age distribution of ocean ﬂoor: Ocean ﬂoor is younger at the boundaries of plates. Continental crust is 2 billion y.o. while oceanic crust is less than 200 million y.o. GPS measurements of plate motion: With GPS, we can see that the plates move about 10 cm per year. Mantle Plumes, or Hot Spots: Yellowstone, Hawaii, Iceland, etc. Leave tracks on plates, and are not part of plates. In Hawaii, Necker, the furthest island, is 10 million years old, while Oahu is 2.6 million years old, and Hawaii is 300,000 years old. (As the plate moves along, hot spot erupts into ocean and creates an island.) Components of the Earth: Core: Inner core; solid iron. Outer core; liquid iron. Mantle: Liquid up to the asthenosphere, and then becomes solid. Lithosphere: Crust and upper mantle; solid. Plate Movement: Ridge push: plates move up Slab pull: plates move down. Lithosphere: Crust and upper mantle. Solid. Mantle: Liquid until asthenosphere. Core: Liquid and Solid. Tristen Pennington 2016 Ridge Push Slab Pull Slab Pull
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