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Week I Archaeology Notes

by: Sam Hipe

Week I Archaeology Notes AN220

Marketplace > Arcadia University > Sociology/Anthropology > AN220 > Week I Archaeology Notes
Sam Hipe
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About this Document

These notes cover the first 2 lectures we had in class both about what archaeology is and what types exist in the field
Intro to Archaeology
Moran, Kimberlee
Class Notes
Archaeology, types, artifacts, museums




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sam Hipe on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN220 at Arcadia University taught by Moran, Kimberlee in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in Sociology/Anthropology at Arcadia University.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Archaeology: The Basics 9/6/16 Paper:  PA State Historic Preservation Office  Try to avoid websites – use interlibrary loans  3 minimum sources  Start ASAP Why is Archaeology Important?  Better understanding/better view  Visual representation – makes people seem more real  Interdisciplinary o Environmental sciences and geology o Paleontology   Understand where we come from with the evolutionary trail  Self­knowledge  Timeline of human history Historic vs. Prehistoric in North America  Historic – when the Europeans arrive  Prehistoric – Native Americans and prior to the Europeans Naming artifacts?  View it as how the makers view it, not as we see it  Can be viewed as offensive When do we think archaeology inhibits?  Money  Cheap utilities?  What is it significance  Roadways o 295 old farmhouse from 1730 in South Jersey Archeology is a cultural resource rather than a natural resource 4 Fields of Anthropology (Very American way)  Archaeology  Cultural  Bio/physical o Bones o Forensic   Linguistic  What is Archaeology?  The study of past human activity/culture  Who, what, when, where, why, how  Aims to understand the past human existence and culture based on the examination of the remains of human activity o Settlements o Burials/human remains  Subsistence   Status/religious beliefs o Rubbish o Material culture  Stuff we make  Tools. Weapons, clothing, toys, pottery, etc Types of Archaeology  Ethno archaeology; Maritime; Native American; Lithic; Funerary; Metallurgy; Near eastern;  Classical; Underwater What do Archaeologists do?  Research o Lots of paper research  Dig/excavate  Experiment o Pigments – try to replicate it today  Analyze o Bring in outside experts o X­rays  Conserve/preserve o For future generations to also look into the sites o Whatever you do, you have to be able to undo it o Lots of mishaps in the past  Write  Teach Where do they work?  In the field  Lab  Office o Researching and corresponding  Museum o Conservation, public education, putting together exhibits  University  A company – typically private o Hunter Research o Richard Grubb, Associates – Cranberry NJ* o Commonwealth Heritage Group* o Louis Berger  The government o National Parks  Locally and exotic locations How to Excavate – We will touch on this in more depth later  Pick a spot (not that simple)  Gather equipment  Decide on strategy o Depends on the sensitivity of the spots o Within a gird or based on topography Soils  Sand, silt, clay, loam – 4 descriptors o Sand is 2mm o Silt is powdery and fine; becomes slimy when wet; coats fingers o Clay is sticky and it hardens when dry; particles are plate­like o Loam is equal combination of the 3; typically topsoil or fluffy  Munsell Soil Color Change o Lists the colors of the soils so we may describe it properly o Throw the dirt/mud onto the page and figure out the color  Steps o Set up a screen and tarp o Dig a 2’ hole as far down as possible using a diamond head shovel o Record color/texture of soil o Give each soil change a context number Harris Matrix  Represents the deposition/history of a site  Each context/strata represents an action  The last action will be the first found  Positive & negative context  Profile drawing    Steps o Screen each context separately o Put anything you find into a bag o Label bags with date, hole #, and context # How Can I be an Archaeologist?  Read up  Visit museums  Ask an archaeologist  Use the internet  Join a local group like historic societies  College/grad school with good grades o Look into CRM  Summer field school  Attend conferences o Meet people and find jobs Philadelphia Archaeological Forum – Last Thursday of every month Types of Archaeology 9/8/2016 What do We Picture with an Archaeologist?  Digging = dirty  Earthen tones = tans  Typically male, middle aged with beard  Hat and boots and glasses Types mentioned in Readings  Temporal (IAI) o Prehistoric  Before written record  Paleolithic (2m­10K BC)  Neolithic (9K­2.4K BC)  Bronze Age (4.5K­500BC)  Dynasties or Periods within Regions  EDIII (2900­2350BC) – Early Dynastic  Ptolemaic (323­30BC) o After the death of Alexander the Great in Egypt  Woodland (1000BC­contact) o Historic o Industrial  Mid­to late 1800s onward  Ethno­archaeologists o Talking with living descendants to gain insight of the past o Richard Gould  Australian Aboriginals   Father of forensic archaeology and underwater archaeology in USA  Environmental o Ecofacts o Study of land use history o Plants people were growing and subsisting on  Experimental  Underwater  CRM – Cultural Research Management  Conservationists  Regional o Classical  Greek and Roman  o Egyptian o Mesoamerican   Latin America  o Other examples  European, African, SE Asian, Pacific Islander, Anatolian, Artic, Balkan  From the archaeology expert website o Archaeobotany o Coprolite (poo)  o Pottery (ceramics)  How it’s made and decorated o Stone tools (lithic)  Materials, style, how it’s used, debris when it’s made, distributed, how it’s made o Zoo­archaeology (bioarchaeology)  Cultural Groups o Vikings o Inca o Mayan o Lots of N.American Tribes o Sumerians o Persian o Celtic o Chinese  Other o Metallurgy o Dendrochronology  Trees  o Palynology/paleoecology o Archaeological dating o Remote sensing/GIS o Bio­archaeology/osteo­ o Paleopathology  Ancient diseases o Maritime  Shipbuilding  Underwater  o Funerary o Geo­archaeology o Rock art  Cave­dwelling o Landscape  How we utilize landscape and predicting where sites might be o Forensic 


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