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Weel 1 Notes

by: Whitney Marie Halaby

Weel 1 Notes PSYC 203

Whitney Marie Halaby
GPA 3.47
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About this Document

Chapters 1 & 2
Human Development
Lora Fisher
Class Notes
Psychology, Psycho, HumanDevelopment, Freud, Skinner, bandura




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Marie Halaby on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 203 at Towson University taught by Lora Fisher in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Psychology at Towson University.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
PSYCH 203­ Human Development 9/6/16 Chapter 1  Human development: the scientific study of age related changes in behavior,  thinking, emotion, and personality – lifespan perspective  Three Theories o Augustine Hippo  Sin   Humans are born selfish and must seek spiritual rebirth  Christianity based  Everyone is born evil  Developmental Outcomes: individuals struggle to overcome  immoral action  o Jean Jacques  Emphasis on children and the basic goodness of human nature  Innate goodness  Nurturance and protection is needed  Developmental Outcomes: children’s environments interfere or  encourage this outlook o John Locke  Empiricism  Children are passive recipients of environmental experiences   Blank Slate  Developmental Outcomes: individual differences are due to  experience   Early Scientific Theories o Darwin  All about genes   Conducted the first organized study of human development   Interplay of genetics and environmental adaptions   Baby biographies: detailed records of his own children’s early  years o G. Stanley Hall  First scientific study of child development   Psychologist   Emphasis on norms or average ages at while developmental  milestones occur  Created the phrase “storm & stress” to refer to adolescence   Always think of averages with Hall o Arnold Gessel  Maturation occurs naturally  Used movie cameras and one way mirrors   Domains & Periods of Development o Physical domain: puberty  o Cognitive domain: memory & thinking  o Social domain: relationships­ adolescence and early childhood o Periods of Development MUST KNOW FOR TEST  Prenatal  infancy  early childhood  middle childhood   adolescence  early adulthood  middle adulthood  late  adulthood  Nature V Nurture o Nature: inborn properties, biological influence, inborn biases o Nurture: learning from environmental experiences, internal models of  experience   Continuity and Discontinuity o Continuity: qualitative changes in an amount or degree o Discontinuity: qualitative, step like changes  o If development consists only of additions, then the concepts of stages is  not needed o If development involves reorganization or emergence strategies, skill  stages can be useful  Three Types of Change o Normative age graded universal changes: social clock or age norms o Normative history graded changes: cohort or generational changes  o Non­normative changes: unique, unshared changes or individual  differences   Gender o Influences individual development  o Interaction between characteristics and environment influences and is  influenced by gender   Contexts of Development o Individual differences related to timing  o Critical periods: a specific period in development when an organism is  especially sensitive to the presence of some particular experience –  ANIMALS  o Sensitive periods: span of months/years when a child may be particularly  responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by  their absence – HUMANS  o On time events: when most members of society experience events ex.  Marriage   o Off time events: o Atypical development: mental retardation, psychopathology  Goals of Developmental Science o Describe, explain, predict development / development event o Influence some developmental outcomes  Variables: characteristics that vary across people  Relationship: when 2 or more variables vary together   Naturalistic Observation: o Time consuming  o Descriptive method: ways to identify relationships  o Watching individuals as an outside observer   Case Study o Ex. Sleep study  o An in­depth examination of a single individual   Laboratory Observation o Controlled setting  o Similar to naturalistic observation except the setting and activities are  controlled  Broad Survey Areas o Questionnaires o Interviews  o Methods: questions/ answers are recorded and samples are used  Correlation o Describes the strength of the relationships between 2 variables  o Positive correlation: high scores on one variable usually accompany high  scores on the other o Negative correlation: two variables move in the opposite directions o Correlation does not mean causation   Experiment Designs o Test casual hypothesis o Randomly assign participant to different treatment and control groups  o Experimental (treatment) group o Control group   Cross Sectional Designs o People from different age groups are studied at the same time point o It can indicate possible age difference or age changes o Age related differences may become confused with cohort or generational  effects  Longitudinal Design o Study a small group of people over time o Consistencies and incontinences are studied  o Changes are assessed over time in the same people o Hard to generalize  Sequential Design o Combines 2 cohorts  o Both aging and cohort affect is possible  Cross­ Cultural Studies o Ex. Child abuse o Search for universal and unique developmental changes o Demonstrates a degree of environmental variation within human  development  Ethics o Principles for responsible conduct of research and use of any outcomes  resulting from research o Protection from harm, informed consent, confidentiality, knowledge of  result, deception  o IRB: Institutional Review Board Chapter 2  Major theoretical perspectives o Psychoanalytic  o Learning  o Cognitive   Freud o 3 personality types: id, ego, superego o Psychosexual theory: internal drives and emotions influence behavior –  patient’s memories are used as primary source material o Psychosexual Stages:  0­1 yrs­ Oral  1­3yrs – Anal  3­6 yrs – phallic   6­12 yrs – latency  12 yrs and up – genital   Erikson o Neo­Freudian  o Psychosocial theory: development is influenced by common cultural  demand and internal drives o Each psychosocial stage requires a resolution to arise  o Healthy development requires a favorable ration of positive to negative  experiences   Pavlov o Pavlov’s dogs o Classical conditioning: a learning process that occurs through associations  between environmental stimulus and naturally occurs stimulus  o Reflex: stimulus response connection  o Learned: conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response  Skinner o Operant conditioning: modifying voluntary behavior  o Rats o Reinforcement increases behavior  o Behaviors dependent on reinforcement – positive and negative  reinforcement   Bandura o Social cognitive theory: observational learning or modeling: learning  results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior –  dependent on four factors:  Attention   Memory   Physical capability   Motivation   Perceived self efficacy: people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects   Piaget o Cognitive theory: development involves processes based upon actions and  later progresses into changes of mental operations o Scheme: internal cognitive structure o Assimilation: using schemes to make sense of experiences o Accommodation: change a scheme to incorporate new info o Equilibrium: balancing assimilation and accommodation  o Sensorimotor  preoperational  concrete operational  formal  operational   Vgyotzky  o Zone of proximal development: the level at which a child can almost, but  not fully, perform a task independently, but can do so with assistance of  someone more competent  ex. Child trying to pour milk, it spills, so an  adult helps – THEORY  o Scaffolding: the support for learning and problem solving  that encourages independence and growth ( park of zone of proximal development) o Socio­cultural theory: complex forms of thinking have origins in social  interactions, not private exploration   Information Processing Theory o The computer is used as a model to explain how the mind manages  information  o 3 stage theory of memory:  sensory memories   short term or working memory  long term memory   Biological Theories o Behavioral genetics: examines genetic under­pinning of behavior  phenotypes o Urie Brongenbrenner—Bioecological theory: explains development in  terms of relationships between people and their environments 


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