PKG 101 Lecture 3 Notes
PKG 101 Lecture 3 Notes PKG 101
Popular in Principles of Packaging
Popular in Packaging Science
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Thursday, September 8th Lecture Notes Thursday, September 8, 10:07 AM The Functions of Packaging • "A coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing and use." Basic Functions • A package performs one or more of the following four basic functions ○ Containment ○ Protection ○ Communication Utility ○ Containment • First and most basic function • ABILITY TO HOLD • Containment is simply holding a product in a way that allows it to be grouped, enclosed, or moved. • 3 considerations when preparing a package design: 1. The product's Physical Form ○ Mobile fluid ○ Viscous fluid ○ Solid/fluid mixture ○ Paste ○ Solid unit ○ Free-‐flowing powder 2. The product's Nature ○ Corrosive ○ Corrodible ○ Flammable ○ Fragile ○ Toxic ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The product's Use ○ Microwavable ○ dual ovenable ○ Portable ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The product's Use ○ Microwavable ○ dual ovenable ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf stable Protection • Maintaining the integrity • Protection of the product from shocks, vibration and other physical issues (like stacking) • Protection of product from the atmosphere • Protection of the consumer (and others in the usage environment) • MAINTAINING THE INTEGRITY Communication • All of the messages that the package provides to those who interact with it, the conveying of information by signs, words, symbols, color, and shape • Some messages are required by law and some are marketing tools. • Label information motivates consumers to purchase the product. • Provides consumers to make choices; price, nutrition, ingredients, etc. • Motivates to continue purchasing the same brand ( loyalty) or acts on the information provided in advertisements or on packages to select a different product • Package is often called the "silent salesman" • CONVEYING OF INFORMATION Utility/ Convenience • Utility-‐ package feature that deals with function and performance • Convenience-‐package feature that addresses "ease of use", reduce time, reduce effort, reduce steps. • Ex ○ Handles ○ Tear strips ○ Fitments, means of dispensing § Spouts § Shakers § Valves § Pumps • Any package feature that makes a product easier to use, more convenient, or safer is providing utility • FUCTION AND PERFORMACE EASE OF USE What are the Environments • The package must successfully perform these functions from the point of manufacturing through the distribution supply chain, retailing and consumer • Any package feature that makes a product easier to use, more convenient, or safer is providing utility • FUCTION AND PERFORMACE EASE OF USE What are the Environments • The package must successfully perform these functions from the point of manufacturing through the distribution supply chain, retailing and consumer use environment that includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's Packaging Matrix • Functions and environments interact continuously and simultaneously Transportation Factors • Products are subjected to shocks and vibration at all stages of the manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution cycle. • Vibration damage • Shock and drop events • Compression ○ Static ○ Dynamic Sanitary & Biological Factors • One form of protection is to simply keep the product clean. • Packages must be tight and constructed of material which will keep such pests from gaining access to the product. Barrier Packaging • A barrier packaging material is one that slows down or stops the movement of selected gaseous substances into or out of a package. • The best (absolute) barrier material are Glass or Metal! Atmosphere Factors • Hygroscopic ○ They will gain moisture in humid environments • You need to select a material that has high water vapor barrier properties to prevent the passage of moisture through it • Oxygen barrier ○ Shelf life Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) ○ Oxygen • Many products need the controlled levels of oxygen • Too much oxygen is a hazard for some food products • A low level of oxygen can be an advantage or a hazard, depending on the product. Carbon Dioxide • Carbonated beverages (beer and soft drinks) lose the "fizz" and bubbly character if the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) leaks out of the package. • Too much oxygen is a hazard for some food products • A low level of oxygen can be an advantage or a hazard, depending on the product. Carbon Dioxide • Carbonated beverages (beer and soft drinks) lose the "fizz" and bubbly character if the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) leaks out of the package. Atmospheric Factors • Temperature ○ Many products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. ○ Cold chain Temperature • Many consumer and medical products must be held in a specific temperature range to prevent damage or spoilage. • Consumer products effected by freezing = can be damaged. • Packaging can be damaged by excessive heat or cold. Atmospheric Factors • Light ○ Light can change, degrade, and fade products during transportation and storage, so those that are sensitive (usually to ultraviolet light from sunlight) require packaging that will protect them. Human Factors • Tampering ○ Tamper evident features used today includes shrink bands around bottle necks, seals, adhesive tapes/stickers/labels, break -‐away components, markings, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, among others. Some of these features can also be used to prevent theft from retailers. Tampering • Protection against unauthorized opening of packages to tamper with a product • Tamper resistant approaches that can be used to make tampering difficult or to provide evidence that tampering has occurred. ○ Shrink neck bands ○ Inner seals Human Factors • Child resistant packaging provides protection of a child against injury by the product. ○ Medications ○ Household cleaners ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package Classification Systems Classification of Packages • Primary, the first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package Classification Systems Classification of Packages • Primary, the first wrap or containment of the product that directly holds the product for sale • Secondary, is a wrap or containment of the primary package. • Tertiary, is a wrap or containment whose prime purpose is to protect the product during the distribution and to provide for efficient handling. • Unit Load, is a group of distribution packages assembled into a single unit for the purpose of mechanical handling, storage and shipping • Packaging may satisfy two or more classifications at the same time. • Primary ○ Directly contacts the product Consumer and Industrial Packages • Packages are often defined by their intended destination: • Consumer package, a package that will ultimately reach the consumer as a unit of sale from a merchandising outlet. • Industrial package, a package for delivering goods from manufacturer to manufacturer. Industrial packaging usually, but not always, contains goods or materials for further processing. ○ Typically, the inform/sell function plays a less significant role in industrial packaging