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PKG 101 Lecture 3 Notes

by: Samantha Shea

PKG 101 Lecture 3 Notes PKG 101

Samantha Shea
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These notes cover the material highlighted during class on Thursday, September 8th.
Principles of Packaging
p. koning
Class Notes
Packaging, Lecture Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Shea on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PKG 101 at Michigan State University taught by p. koning in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Packaging in Packaging Science at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Thursday,  September  8th  Lecture  Notes Thursday,  September   8,  10:07  AM The  Functions  of  Packaging • "A  coordinated  system  of  preparing  goods  for  transport,  distribution,  storage,   retailing  and  use." Basic  Functions • A  package  performs  one  or  more  of  the  following  four  basic  functions ○ Containment ○ Protection   ○ Communication Utility ○ Containment • First  and  most  basic  function • ABILITY  TO  HOLD • Containment  is  simply  holding  a  product  in  a  way  that  allows  it  to  be  grouped,   enclosed,  or  moved. • 3  considerations  when  preparing  a  package  design: 1. The  product's  Physical  Form ○ Mobile  fluid ○ Viscous  fluid ○ Solid/fluid  mixture ○ Paste ○ Solid  unit ○ Free-­‐flowing  powder 2. The  product's  Nature ○ Corrosive ○ Corrodible ○ Flammable ○ Fragile ○ Toxic ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The  product's  Use ○ Microwavable   ○ dual  ovenable ○ Portable ○ Stick ○ Odorous 3. The  product's  Use ○ Microwavable   ○ dual  ovenable ○ Portable ○ Multipack ○ Shelf  stable Protection • Maintaining  the  integrity • Protection  of  the  product  from  shocks,  vibration  and  other  physical  issues  (like   stacking) • Protection  of  product  from  the  atmosphere • Protection  of  the  consumer  (and  others  in  the  usage  environment) • MAINTAINING  THE  INTEGRITY Communication • All  of  the  messages  that  the  package  provides  to  those  who  interact  with  it,  the   conveying  of  information  by  signs,  words,  symbols,  color,  and  shape • Some  messages  are  required  by  law  and  some  are  marketing  tools. • Label  information  motivates consumers  to  purchase  the  product. • Provides  consumers  to  make   choices;  price,  nutrition,  ingredients,  etc. • Motivates  to  continue  purchasing  the  same  brand  ( loyalty)  or  acts  on  the   information  provided  in  advertisements  or  on  packages  to  select  a  different   product • Package  is  often  called  the  "silent  salesman" • CONVEYING  OF  INFORMATION Utility/  Convenience • Utility-­‐ package  feature  that  deals  with  function  and  performance • Convenience-­‐package  feature  that  addresses  "ease  of  use",  reduce  time,   reduce  effort,  reduce  steps. • Ex ○ Handles ○ Tear  strips ○ Fitments,  means  of  dispensing § Spouts § Shakers § Valves § Pumps • Any  package  feature  that  makes  a  product  easier  to  use,  more  convenient,  or   safer  is  providing  utility   • FUCTION  AND  PERFORMACE  EASE  OF  USE What  are  the  Environments • The  package  must  successfully  perform  these  functions  from  the  point  of   manufacturing  through  the  distribution  supply  chain,  retailing  and  consumer   • Any  package  feature  that  makes  a  product  easier  to  use,  more  convenient,  or   safer  is  providing  utility   • FUCTION  AND  PERFORMACE  EASE  OF  USE What  are  the  Environments • The  package  must  successfully  perform  these  functions  from  the  point  of   manufacturing  through  the  distribution  supply  chain,  retailing  and  consumer   use  environment  that  includes: ○ Physical ○ Atmosphere ○ Human Lockhart's  Packaging  Matrix • Functions  and  environments  interact  continuously  and  simultaneously Transportation  Factors • Products  are  subjected  to  shocks  and  vibration  at  all  stages  of  the   manufacturing,  warehousing,  and  distribution  cycle. • Vibration  damage • Shock  and  drop  events • Compression ○ Static ○ Dynamic Sanitary  &  Biological  Factors • One  form  of  protection  is  to  simply  keep  the  product  clean. • Packages  must  be  tight  and  constructed  of  material  which  will  keep  such  pests   from  gaining  access  to  the  product. Barrier  Packaging • A  barrier  packaging  material  is  one  that  slows  down  or  stops  the  movement  of   selected  gaseous  substances  into  or  out  of  a  package. • The  best  (absolute)  barrier  material  are  Glass  or  Metal! Atmosphere  Factors • Hygroscopic ○ They  will  gain  moisture  in  humid  environments • You  need  to  select  a  material  that  has  high  water  vapor  barrier  properties  to   prevent  the  passage  of  moisture  through  it • Oxygen  barrier ○ Shelf  life Modified  atmosphere  packaging  (MAP) ○ Oxygen • Many  products  need  the  controlled  levels  of  oxygen • Too  much  oxygen  is  a  hazard  for  some  food  products • A  low  level  of  oxygen  can  be  an  advantage  or  a  hazard,  depending  on  the   product. Carbon  Dioxide • Carbonated  beverages  (beer  and  soft  drinks)  lose  the  "fizz"  and  bubbly   character  if  the  Carbon  Dioxide  (CO2)  leaks  out  of  the  package. • Too  much  oxygen  is  a  hazard  for  some  food  products • A  low  level  of  oxygen  can  be  an  advantage  or  a  hazard,  depending  on  the   product. Carbon  Dioxide • Carbonated  beverages  (beer  and  soft  drinks)  lose  the  "fizz"  and  bubbly   character  if  the  Carbon  Dioxide  (CO2)  leaks  out  of  the  package. Atmospheric  Factors • Temperature ○ Many  products  must  be  held  in  a  specific  temperature  range  to  prevent   damage  or  spoilage. ○ Cold  chain Temperature • Many  consumer  and  medical  products  must  be  held  in  a  specific  temperature   range  to  prevent  damage  or  spoilage. • Consumer  products  effected  by  freezing  =  can  be  damaged. • Packaging  can  be  damaged  by  excessive  heat  or  cold. Atmospheric  Factors • Light ○ Light  can  change,  degrade,  and  fade  products  during  transportation  and   storage,  so  those  that  are  sensitive  (usually  to  ultraviolet  light  from   sunlight)  require  packaging  that  will  protect  them. Human  Factors • Tampering ○ Tamper  evident  features  used  today  includes  shrink  bands  around  bottle   necks,  seals,  adhesive  tapes/stickers/labels,  break -­‐away  components,   markings,  and  radio  frequency  identification  (RFID)  tags,  among  others.   Some  of  these  features  can  also  be  used  to  prevent  theft  from  retailers. Tampering • Protection  against  unauthorized  opening  of  packages  to  tamper  with  a  product • Tamper  resistant  approaches  that  can  be  used  to  make  tampering  difficult  or  to   provide  evidence  that  tampering  has  occurred. ○ Shrink  neck  bands ○ Inner  seals Human  Factors • Child  resistant  packaging  provides  protection  of  a  child  against  injury  by  the   product. ○ Medications ○ Household  cleaners ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package  Classification  Systems Classification  of  Packages • Primary,  the  first  wrap  or  containment  of  the  product  that  directly  holds  the   product  for  sale ○ Paint ○ Etc. Package  Classification  Systems Classification  of  Packages • Primary,  the  first  wrap  or  containment  of  the  product  that  directly  holds  the   product  for  sale • Secondary,  is  a  wrap  or  containment  of  the  primary  package. • Tertiary,  is  a  wrap  or  containment  whose  prime  purpose  is  to  protect  the   product  during  the  distribution  and  to  provide  for  efficient  handling. • Unit  Load,  is  a  group  of  distribution  packages  assembled  into  a  single  unit  for   the  purpose  of  mechanical  handling,  storage  and  shipping • Packaging  may  satisfy  two  or  more  classifications  at  the  same  time. • Primary ○ Directly  contacts  the  product Consumer  and  Industrial  Packages • Packages  are  often  defined  by  their  intended  destination: • Consumer  package,  a  package  that  will  ultimately  reach  the  consumer  as  a  unit   of  sale  from  a  merchandising  outlet. • Industrial  package,  a  package  for  delivering  goods  from  manufacturer  to   manufacturer.  Industrial  packaging  usually,  but  not  always,  contains  goods  or   materials  for  further  processing. ○ Typically,  the  inform/sell  function  plays  a  less  significant  role  in  industrial   packaging


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