New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 8: Newspapers

by: Consuela Horton

Chapter 8: Newspapers SCOM 2050

Consuela Horton
GPA 3.65

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 8 notes from class. Taken on 9/7/16
Melanie Chambers
Class Notes
25 ?





Popular in Speech & Communication

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Consuela Horton on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 2050 at Georgia State University taught by Melanie Chambers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see MEDIA, CULTURE, AND SOCIETY in Speech & Communication at Georgia State University.

Popular in Speech & Communication


Reviews for Chapter 8: Newspapers


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/08/16
Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Newspapers History • First newspaper in North America - Publick Occurrences: Both Foreign and Domestick • First regularly published newspaper in American colonies - The Boston News-Letter Historical Importance of New-York Weekly Journal • John Peter Zenger-printer • Journal escalated attacks on royal governor of New York • Zenger shielded reporters - He defended them • Zenger arrested for seditious libel - defaming a public official’s character in print - He was found not guilty • Outcome/Ruling: Newspapers had the right to criticize government leaders as long as it was true. • Zenger ruling-the right of a democratic press to criticize public officials-foundation for the first Amendment to the Constitution. Historical - Later 17th Century • Two general types of newspapers - Political - Commercial • Political papers=partisan press-editorial pages • Commercial papers-business section of newspapers 1 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Historical - 18th Century Mass Media Begins • Penny Press began competing with more expensive six-cents papers, read mostly by the affluent - Literacy rates go up because of the more widespread circulation. • One of the first ONE PENNY papers is called The Sun Historical - 18th Century Innovation of Penny Papers • First to assign reporters to cover crime • Front page reporting separated from political (editorials) page • Economic base shifted from political parties to the market • Market included advertising revenue, classified ads, street sales • Associated Press (AP) formed by six New York newspapers • AP - the first major news wire service • Wire service utilized telegraph lines, then after radio waves and digital transmission Historical - 18th Century Yellow Journalism • Exciting human interest papers • Large headlines - To grab attention • More readable copy - Copy means the text - words were easier to understand - words were more legible Historical - 19th Century • Objectivity - Impartial and purely informational (differentiation from Yellow Press) 2 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 - Appealed to more affluent (Evidenced by growth of Times) Historical - 20th Century - Inverted Pyramid Who, what, when, where, why; the most important information Supporting information; key quotes Additional facts, information and quotes Background and alternate explanations Least important information Historical - Contemporary Journalism • Visual style important (compared to substantive news) - It is thought by some that visuals are more important than words • Brevity of reports to appeal to busy customers Business and Ownership • Types of newspapers - National - Metro Dailies - Medium dailies - Small dailies - Non-daily and weeklies • Consensus vs. Conflict Roles - Non-dailies focus: CONSENSUS Postering a sense of community Reporting on: schools, social events, town government, property crimes, zoning issues 3 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 Small advertising base so care is taken not to offend advertisers - National and metro-dailies focus: CONFLICT Neutral fact gathering and monitoring of problems Maintain adversarial relationship with politicians and public officials Events, issues experiences that deviate from social norms Revenue • Newspaper Media-Changing Revenue Stream - 2007 Ads: 81% Circulation: 16% Other: 3% - 2013 Circulation: 29% Newspaper Ads: 46% Digital Ads: 9% Other: 8% Niche/DM/non-daily: 8% Newspaper Preservation Act, 1970 • Enables failing papers to continue operation through a JOINT OPERATING AGREEMENT (JOA) - Two competing papers keep separate divisions - They merge business and production operations Newspaper Challenges • Decline in readership 4 Wednesday, September 7, 2016 • Smaller daily and weekly papers in some cities performing better than some big-city papers (less mass media competition) • Loyal readership • Consensus oriented and therefore they do not experience great dips in advertising revenue • Blogs challenge the authority of newspapers online • Convergence Newspapers and Democracy • Newspapers play a leading role in democracy • From 1992-2015 - Iraq: 167 reporter killed - Syria: 82 reporters killed - Philippines: 77 reporters killed - Algeria: 60 reporters killed - Russia: 56 reporters killed • Newspapers have become formulaic in reporting • Only issues of interest to the middle-class are covered • Rise in the number of chains-fall in likelihood of new opinions Chain ownership discourages watchdog journalism • • Threat of reduced advertising support - tightening/lessoning of investigative reporting 5


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.