Cognitive Psychology (Psych 2101) Week 2 Notes (9/6 and 9/8)
Cognitive Psychology (Psych 2101) Week 2 Notes (9/6 and 9/8) PSY 2101 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2101 - 001 at Temple University taught by Pamela J. Shapiro (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Temple University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
9/6: Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory (WM) In continuation of week 1: ● Multiple lines of evidence must be used when hypothesizing mechanisms used to explain observable data ● often a single piece of data can be explained by a variety of hypotheses ● WM involves more than just the capacity/span test ○ mechanisms are important during reading, reasoning, and problem solving ○ The rehearsal loop plays an important role during development ● Experiments allow us to understand the internal complex mechanisms in a simpler, more constrained manner Chapter 2: Cells, Structure, and Function ● Neurons: ○ basic building block of the brain and nervous system ○ A neuron is a cell that is specialized for receiving and transmitting chemical nerve impulses ● Glia ○ ((The glue that hold everything together in your brain)) ○ Guide development of nervous system ■ Fetus and young infants ○ Supports repairs if the nervous system is damaged ○ Controls nutrient flow to the neurons ○ Electrical insulation speeds signal transmission ■ Special glial cells form the myelin sheath ○ Glia have their own signaling system ((recent discovery)) ■ separate from the information flow provided by the neurons ■ influences neurotransmitters and synaptic sensitivity ● Parts of neurons ○ Dendrites detect incoming signal ○ Cell body contains nucleus and cellular machinery ○ the axon transmits signals to other neurons ● Communication between neurons is chemical ○ neurotransmitter is a chemical that is released by the axon terminal of one neuron to communicate with another neuron ○ the space surrounding the two neurons and their membranes is synapse ○ The first neuron is called a presynaptic neuron (where axon releases) and the second is postsynaptic neuron (where dendrites receives) ● Communication within neurons is done via electrical signals ○ Neurotransmitter affect postsynaptic neuron by changing ion distributions and resulting electrical potentials ○ Initial response varies with the size of the ionic flow ○ if the postsynaptic cell reaches threshold, an action potential is fired and propagates down the axon ● Accumulation of neurotransmitter in postsynaptic cleft ○ will not trigger an action potential ■ all or nothing effect ● it either releases or does not ● It does not release UNLESS it reaches threshold ● Synaptic transmission ○ One neuron can receive information from many other neurons ■ Can integrate information from many sources ■ Can compare many signals and adjust ■ Strength of the synaptic connection is altered by experience ● longtermpotentiation ○ biological basis for learning The principle structures of the brain: Hindbrain ● lowest level ● sits directly atop the spinal cord ● controls rhythms of the heart and breathing ● regulates levels of alertness ● includes the cerebellum, which coordinates movements and balance, in addition to more recently discovered sensory and cognitive roles ● Example of cognitive role of the cerebellum ○ involved in processing verbs ○ motormuscle memory and language processing Midbrain ● sits above the hindbrain ● involved in motor function and voluntary movement ● includes parts of the auditory pathways ● regulates the experience the pain ● includes the substantia nigra, an area with a large concentration dopamine neurons ○ This is the area damaged in Parkinson’s patients Forebrain (Cerebrum) ● comprises of the most parts of the brain that are visible from the outer surface and just below ● includes cortex (thin convoluted sheet of tissue) ○ divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres by the longitudinal fissure ○ commissures, thick bundles of nerve fibers, connect the two hemispheres, the largest of which is the corpus callosum ○ The cortex is divided into anterior and posterior regions by the central fissure Fore Cerebral Lobes ● frontal lobe (front of your head) ● parietal lobe (on top of your head) ● occipital lobe (exactly opposite to your eyes = at the back of your head) ● temporal lobe (at the bottom of your head = under the parietal lobe) ● ((F.P.O.T: clockwise pattern of lobes)) ● Cortical maps represents sensory or motor information in an orderly manner ○ organization is by the region of the body, region in space, or auditory frequency ● Space is assigned disproportionately ○ greater sensory acuity or motor precision is associated with larger cortical representation ■ representation depends on how richly innervated an area is (example: we can write with our hands but not with our feet because we use our hands more often) ● The primary somatosensory projection area is located in the anterior parietal lobes ● The primary auditory projection area is located in the superior temporal lobe ● The primary visual projection area is located in the occipital lobes ● The areas describe make up 25% of the human cerebral cortex Association areas ● Creates associations between simple ideas and sensations to form complex thoughts and behaviors Cortical organization is contralateral ● left side controls/represents right side and vice versa The subcortical parts of the forebrain (WILL BE ON EXAM): ● Thalamus ● Hypothalamus ● Limbic system ○ Amygdala ■ Emotion (fear) ○ Hippocampus ■ Longterm memory (a hippo on campus would take a long time to get rid of) Brain Injury: ● Important example: The case of Henry Molaison (known as HM) ○ Localization of function: Studying people with brain lesions (injuries) helps us learn about the functions of these brain regions in healthy people ● Neurological syndromes that reflect damage to regions of the association cortex include: ○ Apraxia problems with the initiation or organization of movement ■ Parkinson’s patients might have apraxia ○ Agnosia problems identifying familiar objects ○ Aphasia problems with language ○ Neglect Syndrome problems in which half of the visual world is ignored ○ Prefrontal damage problems with planning and implementing strategies, inhibiting behaviors ● Lesions ○ The site and extent of the brain lesion or injury are important guides to the kind of disruption that is observed ● Direct Stimulation ○ Where a patient in surgery remained conscious and was administered small electric charges to the exposed brain ■ Triggered small regions ● Split Brain patients: ○ Severing of the corpus callosum ■ Treatment of extreme cases of epilepsy ■ Limits rightleft communication (right and left control different aspects of the body and are incomplete without each other) ● Example: Person looks at a picture with a spoon on the left and a fork on the right. The person thinks the word “fork” (left hemisphere controls right side) but reaches for the soon on the left (right hemisphere control left side) ● Left hemisphere: language ● Right hemisphere: spatial judgement Imaging Technology: ● MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging ○ Gives clear picture of the structure of the brain ● fMRI: Functional MRI ○ Image shows regions of the brain with heightened neural activity (BOLD: Blood Oxygen Level Dependency) ● CT: Computerized axial tomography ○ Uses Xrays to study anatomy ● PET: Positron emission tomography ○ Reveals blood flow and glucose uptake ● EEG: Electroencephalogram ○ Buildup of chemical neurotransmitter ○ Firing of action potential in a neuron ○ Millions of neurons create an electrical field ● EVERY METHOD HAS ITS LIMITATIONS (This is why we have to converge/combine methods = use more than one method for research studies to yield better results) ○ EEG is sensitive to time, not location ○ fMRI detects location but is not time sensitive ○ CT and MRI scans detect brain structures, not activity Data from Neuroimaging ● FFA (Fusiform face area) is active when viewing faces (animate) ○ Lesions in this area lead to face blindness = not recognizing faces = Prosopagnosia ● PPA (parahippocampal place area) is active when viewing houses (inanimate) In Neuroimaging Research ● The identified brain region may not be necessary ● Activity may be correlated with task ● TMS (Transcranial magnetic stimulation) deactivates an area 9/8: Capgras Syndrome ● Recognize loved ones but think they are imposters ● Hypothesis of Capgras Syndrome: two different facial recognition systems exist in the brain ○ Cognitive system that underlies perceptual recognition is intact (factual knowledge) ○ Emotional system that underlied feeling of familiarity is disrupted (lack of familiarity = emotional knowledge) ■ This does not mean FFA is damaged because FFA has to do with the recognition of faces/facial features, not with the emotional side of that recognition ○ Brain damage associated with Capgras involves the amygdala (almond shaped structure that is important for emotional processing) ■ Hypothesis: amygdala might have an important role in emotional memory and decisions that rest on emotional evaluations of the options ○ Also, right prefrontal cortex (a region at the front of the brain important for reasoning) is damaged ■ This makes sense because Capgras patients know that they have seen these people before but they don’t know why they feel like these people are imposters Answers to the questions at the end of the presentation: 1. a 2. C 3. C 4. d (deactivates brain temporarily without invasiveness) 5. d (apraxia)(aphasia has to do with language, neglect with attention and agnosia with object recognition
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