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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Kaitlin Cornell

Chapter 1 Notes SOC 310

Kaitlin Cornell

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About this Document

The notes from Chapter 1 for Research Methods
Research Methods
Dr. Copelton
Class Notes




Popular in Research Methods

Popular in Sociology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Cornell on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 310 at SUNY College at Brockport taught by Dr. Copelton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Sociology at SUNY College at Brockport.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Chapter 1: Research Methods 1. Why do research? a. To avoid errors b. To satisfy our concerns c. To answer our questions d. To achieve accurate results 2. Errors to avoid a. Selective observation i. Observe things that only confirm our suspicions / preferences ii. Example: 1. Observation: Jim treats Maria well because he buys her flowers 2. Ignored: Jim yells at Maria a lot b. Inaccurate observation i. When your observations are wrong c. Overgeneralization i. When we conclude that what we observe for some cases is true for all d. Illogical reasoning i. When we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions ii. Sentence B doesn’t logically follow sentence A e. Resistance to change i. Reluctance to reevaluate ideas in light of new evidence / info ii. Example: when people didn’t agree that the world was round iii. Based on: 1. Personal (ego-based) or institutional commitment (devotion to an idea) 2. Excessive devotion to tradition 3. Uncritical agreement with authority f. Science helps us: 1. Find logical and accurate answers to our questions 2. Avoid errors in reasoning g. Science i. Set of logical, systematic and documented methods for investigating natural and social processes h. Social science i. The use of the scientific methods to investigate individuals, societies and social processes i. Types of social science research i. Descriptive 1. Concerned with describing/defining social phenomenon of interest ii. Exploratory 1. Attempts to understand a. How people get along in a particular setting/context b. What meanings people give to their experiences c. Social phenomenon from point of view of those experiencing it 2. Might not have a set question iii. Explanatory 1. Attempts to identify cause and effect relationships in order to make accurate predictions or promote change iv. Evaluation 1. Attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of some program, policy or intervention 3. Research orientation a. Qualitative methods – quality b. Quantitative methods – quantity 4. Quantitative research a. Uses numbers to describe social phenomenon b. Typical goals i. Explanation  cause and effect ii. Description  define frequency iii. Evaluation  concerned with the effectiveness of a program or social phenomenon 5. Qualitative research a. Uses words to describe social phenomenon b. Typical goals i. Exploration  get knowledge for future research c. Also used for i. Description ii. Explanation  more difficult compared to quantitative research iii. Evaluation  more difficult compared to quantitative research 6. Triangulation a. The use of multiple methods to study a single research question b. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods to answer a research question


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