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History 101 week 3

by: Elle Notetaker

History 101 week 3 HY 101

Elle Notetaker

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These notes cover the material from week 3 and include the Greek Renaissance.
Western Civ To 1648
Sean Lafferty
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elle Notetaker on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sean Lafferty in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
Hy 101 Week 3 Homer and the Greek Renaissance: Tuesday Phases of Greek History: 3650-1400BC: Bronze Age- people are the Minoan (not actually Greek). Much more primitive than Sumer b/c they were so isolated by geographic terrain. 1600-1100BC: Mycenaeans- Trojan War, inspired Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey. Ends in the Dark Ages 1200-800BC: Dark Ages. We don’t really know what happened. 800-500BC: Greek Renaissance. Homer, Olympic games. 5000323BC: Classical Greece. Sparta/Athens. (They don’t get along) 323-31BC: Hellenistic, Alexander the Great. Last phase of Greek history before the Romans come along. Minoans: The Minoans kind of kickstart Greek history. Unfortunately, they wrote in a weird language we can’t read yet, so our knowledge is limited. 3000BC: Minoans arrive from Asia Minor. They aren’t even Greek. They establish a really nice place on the island Creta, with lots of commercial trading. Cretan Life: Cretan Pop: 250,000. The capital of Creta was Knossos (AKA palace of Minos) with a population of 45,000. Flourished around 1700BC. The Ruins of Knossos were rebuilt by Arthur Evans in the early 20 century. Island life was good- they had huge trade networks, made contact w/ the near east, and traded w/ Egypt and Mesopotamia. They were into sea things, including dolphins- they were legit hippies- peaceful, happy loving people, which gave rise to the Pax Minoica: the Minoan peace- they didn’t like fighting. Linear A: a round disk with strange markings on it. Religion: For hippies, they’re dark. They worshiped mostly female deities, and the Mother Goddess- a figure of her holds snakes. Snakes are related to the underworld- they’re dark and dirty. They were OBSESSED w/ bulls (which symbolize power and vitality). They over bulls. Grab the horns, flip over. Lpracticed leaping over bulls for fun. They practiced Human sacrifice and had the Labrys- double headed axe. Their religion was Chthonic- associated with the underworld. 1625BC: Volcanic eruption on Thera exploded and the resulting earthquake, tsunami, and overall destruction did a lot of damage. 1550BC: Invaded from mainland Greece- Pax Minoica- they had no defenses and the invaders just waltzed in. 1420BC: Myceneans came in and just took over Knossos. Linear A was replaced by Linear B (another flat thing, with Greek writing on it this time). Mycenaeans adopt the Minoan culture, take over the Minoan gov. and trade networks w/ contacts in the near east. Myceneans also inherited a trade war w/ Troy. We don’t know a ton about the Myceneans, but we know some from myths and such. Mycenae Greece- last great Bronze Age civilization of the Greek world. 1600- 1200BC. Mycenae was a warrior culture, center was Mycenae city state. Pylos, Sparta. Massive, elaborate graves for warriors. Grave circles a and b. Eventually, they decided to make even more elaborate graves for warriors ->tholos- underground beehive area to commemorate the dead. Mycenae was comprised of city states, each under the control of a Wanax (king). Geographic isolation, again, led to political isolation and over a few hundred years the city states separate, only uniting in times of war. They only get along when they have to. Olympic Pantheon: The Greek gods were pretty much established here, when there seemed to be preference for Poseidon, who controlled earthquakes. Era of Achilles & Co. Inspired many myths after that, including the Epic Cycle- series of myths detailing lives of heroes- Achilles, Illiad, Odyssey, etc. 1200BC: LAST GREAT CIVILIZATION IN MAINLAND GREECE dies out. The Dorians invaded from the north (Europe?) at the same time Egypt was invaded by the Sea Peoples, and Mycenae was completely overcome and abandoned. 1200-800BC: Dark Ages ensue. Dark Ages: Dorians from the north invaded the Peloponnesus- fragmented Greece breaks apart even further, more social and political variation. These guys establish home base in Sparta. Greeks called themselves Hellenes, made of different groups w/ different languages. Main ones: 1)Attic (Athens) 2)Ionic 3)Aeolic 4)Doric (Sparta) Signs you’re in a Dark Age: Simple pottery- geometric patterns, less ornate burial areas, no massive large scale palaces and stuff- no big stuff, Greeks actually managed to forget how to write. (woowww…). It’s called the Dark Ages b/c we think that nothing really happened, hence nothing to find. Some people think we don’t know much just b/c we haven’t found it yet. 800-600BC: From the darkness, Greek civ. Got a new coherence we appreciate more than what came before. What we think of as Greek civ. Really came about. Age of great epic poems & poets (Homer, Hesiod), people are optimistic about the future and get a bit more adventuristic. First Olympic games- 776BC. 750BC: Polis begin appearing. Defining characteristic of Greek Civ- it’s a city state. Where words like politics and politician come from. Farmers and such join together, organize, and populate. Unique characteristic of Greek culture: population pressures allow for spreading of culture- most do it through conquering. They also did it through colonization (Athens became the mother city), Greek culture spread. They take a common language, aesthetics, etc. Rediscovery of Greek: They relearn to write, using a phonetic language. Archaic art & Culture- Greek culture really takes shape, huge rebound of culture. We call it archaic, and it shifted from geometric to abstract patterns. Phase of art is heavily influenced by the near east, and is called Orientalizing. They’re influenced, but still different. Their art can be modeled on Egyptian stuff, but is more detailed, sophisticated, dude is smiling- optimism. They want to show you the ideal form of people- arête- the pursuit of perfection in everything you do. It’s not what you do, it’s how. The World of Homer- The Man: We know very little about him. Writing wasn’t very common, and his stories were ballads, meant to be sung. For about 400yrs, they were sung until someone wrote it down. They Myth: One of the most important tools to understand Mycaenean culture. Last 10yrs of the Trojan War, based on an actual war. Important b/c tells us the important stuff about mycan. Culture: warrior culture, highest virtue is perfection in battle. You don’t do it for personal glory, though- you do it for your polis (city state). To do otherwise is vain glory- hubris-. Virtue>good citizen>great polis. Your rights only go as far as the rights of your city. Only duties are to the polis. *Shift in thinking on the relationship between mortal and immortal. Instead of being playthings of the gods, you get to pick- all things have individual will. Gods were the guides, but it’s ultimately up to you. World governed by Moira- fate- even Gods are subject to fate. Very different from Egypt/Sumer.


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