Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes CBIO 2200
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Cellular biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
WEEK 5 NOTES (9/6-9/8) A strand of DNA has the following base sequence ATGGAACTT What is the complementary mRNA strand? UACCUUGAA Codon is on the mRNA and the anticodon is on the tRNA 3 codons are possible in this strand Cell division- Mitosis • Somatic cells divide, producing 2 identical daughter cells • Each daughter cell contains identical genetic instructions • Replication of the genetic instructions ensures that cell characteristics are continuous from generation to generation • Most cells in the body use mitosis (but not sex cells) ‘ Meiosis is for sex cells and is not an identical replication. Mitosis and cell division a) Cell cycle i) Interphase ii) G1 iii) G2 iv) S b) Mitotic phases i) Prophase ii) Metaphase iii) Anaphase iv) Telophase The phases are continuums and not distinctly cut off from one another What process is affected by a lack of RNA polymerase? Transcription How is DNA replication similar to transcription? They both use a template strand to form another strand. Transcription uses RNA polymerase and DNA replication uses DNA polymerase. Both copies are complementary. A single muscle cell can have up to 12 nuclei Glands are derived from epithelium • Glands are one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product (therefore, some glands are single-celled and some glands are multi- cellular • Substances are secreted into ducts, onto surfaces, or into the blood Endocrine vs. Exocrine • Endocrine glands secrete their product [hormones] into the interstitial fluid and from there into the bloodstream • Endocrine glands are DUCTLESS • Most common example of endocrine secretions are hormones The above picture is extra information ^^ Crosstalk happens through these hormones but the stomach/intestines in themselves are not hormones. • Exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a lumen • Exocrine glands are DUCTED • Some organs can have both (ex. Pancreas) exocrine- into digestive system endocrine-insulin and glucagon to regulate metabolism and digestive functions Mechanisms of secretion Merocrine- secretions are released via exocytosis into the gland lumen Holocrine- cells die and rupture, so secretion includes the secretory product and cell fragments (sebaceous glands. Epithelium regenerates-on going process) Glands respond to hormones and become more active- more pimples Apocrine- controversial! Secretory product and pinched off region from apical region of the cell. a) The only thing being released is the secretory product b) Secretory product and apical regions of the cell pinched off Membranes Two types of tissue- epithelial and connective tissue (typically areolar connective) Membranes are simple organs Mucous Membrane (mucosae) • Line body cavities that open to the outside • “Wet” because the surface remains moist, bathed by secretions of the epithelium or some other substance (i.e., urine) Mucus is in places where there needs to be a reduction of friction (in stomach to protect form acid) Serous Membrane • Lines closed body cavities • Simple squamous epithelium (endothelium or mesothelium) on a layer of areolar connective tissue • Double layers (two of each), with a thin layer of serous fluid between • Pleura (around lungs), pericardium (around heart), peritoneum (around digestive organs) Visceral layer- closest to organ Parietal layer- further from organ Serous fluid is in-between Found around organs or structures that are within motion Cutaneous Membrane • Skin! • Covers the body • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with a dense irregular connective tissue layer • “dry” membrane, meaning that it’s exposed to air Synovial Membrane • Line synovial joints (do not open to outside) • Not a true membrane because there is no epithelial layer • Synovial fluid lubricated the joint, provides nutrients for cartilage and removes waste No hair, but (yes sweat glands) on thick skin. Thick skin includes the palms of your hands and soles of your feet. Epidermis • Epithelium • Stratified, squamous, keratinized epithelium (keratinized is waterproof) • Many cells in close proximity • Distinct cell layers Cells are dying in the stratum granulosum Thick skin has stratum lucidum in addition to the other 4 layers of the epidermis Stratum corneum is composed of little flat dead cells of keratin There are live cells in the basale, spinosum. Cells undergoing mitosis are in basale (also where melanin is) The cells closer to the surface are dying because of loss of nutrients (no blood supply) Stratum spinosum gets its name from the word spidery • Epidermis – Outer Layer; Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium • Dermis – Second layer underneath epidermis; dense irregular connective tissue • Hypodermis – Deep integumentary layer; loose connective tissue The vast majority of cells are: keratinocytes Melanocytes are also important because they produce a pigment: melanin. They have long projections that squeeze between nearby cells. The pigment is taken in by other keratinocytes. The melanin absorbs and protects against UV radiation. The melanin comes form melanocytes but is incorporated into other cells. Melanin is placed on top of the cell, not underneath. Langerhan’s cells- long spiky projections that go in between the keratinocytes- encounter microbial invaders. It engulfs it and then alerts the immune system Merkel cells- sensory cells in stratum basale that detect touch (activate sensory nerve ending) (intraepidermal receptor ends- another name) Skin from thin to thick: abdomen, shoulder, palm 1. What is a tissue? A group of cells that share a similar structure and function 2. Epithelial Tissue a) Characteristics b) Classification i. By cell shape ii. By arrangement into layers c) Simple Epithelia i. Simple squamous ii. Simple cuboidal iii. Simple columnar 1) Ciliated vs. non-ciliated iv. Pseudostratified columnar d) Stratified Epithelia i. Stratified squamous ii. Stratified cuboidal iii. Stratified columnar iv. Transitional epithelium e) Glandular epithelium i. Endocrine glands vs. exocrine glands ii. Single-celled glands vs. multicellular glands iii. Structural classification 1) simple vs. cuboidal 2) alveolar vs. tubular iv. Functional classification (i.e. modes of secretion) 3. Connective Tissue a) Characteristics b) Cells i. Fibroblasts ii. Macrophages iii. Adipocytes iv. White blood cells v. Mast cells c) Fibers i. Collagen ii. Elastic iii. Reticular d) Ground Substance e) Classification i. Loose connective tissues ii. Dense connective tissues 1. Proper -Regular and Irregular iii. Cartilage 1. Hyaline (ends of long bone), Fibrocartilage, and Elastic cartilage iv. Bone v. Blood 4. Membranes a. Mucous membranes b. Serous membranes c. Cutaneous membranes d. Synovial membranes 5. Muscle tissue a. Characteristics b. Skeletal muscle c. Smooth muscle d. Cardiac muscle 6. Nervous tissue a. Characteristics b. Neurons c. Glia
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