Statistics 110-001 STAT 110 001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Ruth Simpson on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 110 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Joshua M. Tebbs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Statistical Reasoning in Math at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Statistics 110 Introduction to Statistical Reasoning Chapter 1 Introduction Statistics- is the science of data; how to interpret data, analyze data, and design studies to collect data -Individuals- the objects observed in a study. Individuals are often people, but they don’t have to be. -Variables- is a characteristic that we measure on each individual. -These measurements are called Data A Categorical variable- places individuals into one of several groups or categories. A Quantative variable- assumes numerical values. Example: weight, age, etc. A variable will usually take on different values for different individuals, this is called Variation. Graphs can be used to display the variation observed in ne or more variables. Populations and Samples: -Population- The entire group of Individuals about which we want information. -A Sample- is the part of the population we actually observe. -In most situations, the population is too large to observe. This is why we use samples. -Survey- studies used to provoke (a response, answer, or fact), information about population of interest. -Statistical Inference: What do the results from the sample suggest about the population of individuals? -Census- a special type of survey where the goal is to observe every individual in the population. Observational Studies and Experiments: Observational study- observes individuals and measures variables of interest. There is no attempt to intervene in order to influence the responses. -In observational studies, we observe the results -The problem with observational studies is that their “findings” are often not repeatable. Experiment- is a study where the investigators deliberately impose some type of treatment or intervention on the individuals. This is done to see how individuals’ responses are influences by the treatment or intervention. -In Experiments, we act and the observe the effect of doing so. Experiments give better information about Cause and Effect. Observational studies generally give no information about this.