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Hist 112 - Week Two Notes

by: MadPie

Hist 112 - Week Two Notes HIST 112

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Here are my notes from Week Two of HIST 112, covering the topics of Islam and the Crusades
World Civilization 1500-Pres
Eric P. Cunningham
Class Notes
history, islam, Muslim, crusades
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by MadPie on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 112 at Gonzaga University taught by Eric P. Cunningham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
History 112 :: Week Two, Study Soup [[ Tuesday 9/6 ]] Foundations of Islam >> Only people that you can “attack” publicly today are Christians and Western Civilization // Initial Considerations // What we read in history books is not objective facts. It is somebody’s biased opinions of 1. certain facts. 2. What we consume in the news media is not objective facts. 3. Avoid seeking simple solutions to complex problems. Everybody in the media seems to do this. // Islam and the “West” :: A Conflict of Long Historical Standing // >> The problem >> The “West” :: Christian people, Jewish people, Atheist people, etc. >> Biblical Context :: Roots of the Conflict • Conflict goes all the way back to sibling rivalry - Isaac and Ishmael [two brothers] A. Sons of Abraham B. Ishmael 13 years older C. Gave birth right to Isaac, the younger brother D. A war between brothers // World Religious Context :: The Great “Missionary Religions” // 1. Buddhism 2. Christianity 3. Islam 4. Secular Modernity >> Christianity and Islam are based off of the roots of Abraham >> Buddhism :: Monks and India — 500 BC - 552 AD Buddhism propagated itself all the way around the Asian world, making it all the way to Japan [552 AD] // Word spread by mouth, by monks >> Christianity :: 33 AD // State church of Rome at 400 AD >> Islam :: 620 AD - 750 AD // Travelled through warfare // What carried Islam around the world was mostly “giad” >> Secular Modernity :: Presents itself as an ideology // Of all the ideologies that propagate itself, it is the most violent, more so than Islam // Christianity has surrendered to it, Islam has not • Modernity has “snuffed out” Christianity, but not Islam • Islam is “at war” with Secular Modernity Cunningham :: Islam and Christianity in a fight against modernity • • Today’s issues with Islam, not a religious problem, its a cultural problem • Islam is the last group of people standing in the winds • Cunningham :: Secular people using Islam as a wedge against Christianity // Augustinian Dialectical Context // >> City of God vs. City of Man >> Is it God’s will that a religious civilization conquer the world? >> What is the purpose of a state? From Augustinian view point :: All of the world is “screwing up” >> Anything that is placed at a higher importance than God is considered screwing up >> America does this // Contemporary Context // >> A new dimension to the Islam-West dialectic emerged after WWI [ ] Imperialism [ ] Cold War Diplomacy [ ] Post-Colonial Globalism Post-terrorist groups are claiming sovereignty They are fighting against their kings They see their own leaders as being pawns to the West Historical Background :: The Founding of Islam // Pre-Islamic World // >> Constantine :: Established a city [Constantinople] which becomes the capital of the Roman Empire // Rome is no longer the capital of the Roman Empire // Roman Empire is gone by 500 AD, taken over by the church and wealthy families >> Persian Empire [Sassanid Dynasty] >> Arabian Peninsula :: Millions of Jews, Christians, Arabian Pagans worshiping gods >> City of Mecca :: Crossroads of two major trading routes // Ka’ba :: Probably a meteor, worshiped by Islam, adopted by Muhammad as a holy site, all the Arabian tribes have their own special artifacts there >> Mecca :: Leading tribe was Quraysh // Revelations of the Angel Gabriel to Mohammad [570-632 AD] // >> There is one God Mohammed is his prophet >> Pray five times a day >> Give alms to the poor [Zakat] >> Fast during the holy month of Ramada >> Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your life [hajj] • Gabriel the Saint appeared and started preaching the Koran to him • Informed him that there is one god, Allah, and that you must be his guide • Must submit yourself to God and must follow these regulations • Must pray five times a day • Must five alms to the poor • Must fast during Ramadan Must make a pilgrimage to Mecca • • Koran :: Allah dictated to man Hadith :: Collection of traditions containing sayings of the prophet Muhammad that, with • accounts of his daily practice (the Sunna), constitute the major source of guidance for Muslims apart from the Koran // Islam and the Religion of Abraham // >> From Mohammad’s perspective, he was sure that he was brining together Christianity an Judaism into a new religion >> Judaism and Arian Christianity :: Arian’s thought that Jesus was just a man and that God had entered him at a certain point, don’t have the full unity of God and Jesus >> What Islam allowed :: Heresies flourishing in Christianity >> What Mohammad knew about Christianity was actually a heretical form of Christianity, so did not believe that Jesus was a greater prophet than himself // M thought that he was a perfectly good Christian in that he was brining together these two religions to create Islam >> Christians believe that Jesus is God, that Jesus died on the cross >> Islams do not believe that Jesus is God, that Jesus died on the cross [To be a Muslim, you have to say that the fundamental beliefs of Christianity are lies] Monotheism :: God is outside the realm of the world and God created the world from the outside in a divine manner // Until God is outside the world, God cannot love the world // Brings the capacity for there to be love, to unhook your life from nature // The Hejira [622] // >> The elders of Mecca ganged up on Mohammad and he left the city and fled Yathrib and renamed the city Medina // Alienation of Meccan tribes sends Mohammad to Yathrib [Medina] >> In the early days, it was merely a military foundations >> In 630, Mohammad went back to Mecca and took it back over >> Medina stayed as city important to Mohammad // The Rashidun Caliphate [632-662] // Caliph :: Political and religious leader who is a successor to Islamic prophet Muhammad Caliphate :: Political entity ruled by a Caliph Four Caliphs during the Rashidun Caliphate >> Abu Baker :: Died in bed, consolidated the Koran, kept the community together after Mohammad was gone >> Omar :: Died in Battle >> Uthman :: Died in Battle, “blamed” for Sunni vs. Shiite split, Ummayad clan, Aesha [wife] >> Ali :: Died in Battle, “blamed” for Sunni vs. Shiite split // The Ummayad Caliphate [662-750] // Capital shifts from Medina to Damascus >> Shiite and Sunni battles >> Conquered Spain >> Persian Empire completely absorbed // The Abbasid Caliphate [750-1250] // Capital moves to Baghdad :: Political Fragmentation >> Independent Islamic kingdoms >> No longer controlled by Arabs >> Mongols eventually rise up in the early 1200’s and take over the entire Asian continent >> Marks the end of the Arabic-Islamic Empire [[ Golden Age of Islam is during all of the changes during the Caliphates ]] // Reasons for the Rapid Spread of Islam // Comparing it to the other missionary religions, why did Islam spread so quickly? >> The coherence of the message of Islam is so clear and so wonderful // The five pillars are clearly stated, simple, and easy to follow, everyone jumped upon it [As said by the modern historian] // High Level of Civilization // [ ] Integration of state, religion, society, and culture [ ] Urbanization and economic success [ ] Uniform code of justice [sharia], conditional toleration for religious minorities >> Historical facts point to one overreaching fact of its success :: jihad // The Byzantine and Syrian Empires at war for generations // Finally exhausted themselves so when the Arabs go on the march, it was easy to pick them >> Jihad :: Primary means by which Islam spread [[ Thursday 9/8 ]] // Muslim Tolerance over Conquered Peoples // >> Conquered people called Dhimmi >> Jizya // Poll tax >> Restrictions on Marriage >> Restrictions on Church-Buildings // Military Supremacy over Rivals // >> Jihad >> Exhaustion … // Problems in the Muslim Community // 1. Sunni vs. Shiite 2. Orthodox vs. Sufi 3. Merchants vs. Farmers and Herders Umma :: Proper word for the members of the Islamic community Ulama :: Smaller community, specifically of priests [ ] Christianity, Buddhism, and other great missionary splits had their “squabbles” before they were able to become these large scale missionary religions >> Sunni vs. Shiite Split << • Syria :: Primarily Sunni [Presently] • Iraq :: Primarily Shiite [Presently] The split was because of differing views on the caliph versus the imam • Caliph is equivalent to a president • Imam is equivalent to a priest • Are we a political entity or a religious one? >> Caliph would’ve been Abu Baker [Sunni] >> Imam would’ve been Ali [Shiite] >> Orthodox vs. Sufi Split << • Orthodox :: Mystical relationship with the almighty • Sufi :: A one-to-one connection with the almighty, no priesthood >> Merchants vs. Farmers and Herders << • Shifted conversation from religion to economics • Marxist paradigm and applied it to Islam • Looked to the poor for revolutionary potency • Poor make up the vast quantity of Muslims // Over-Extension of Arabic World // >> The Mamluk “System” • Mamluk :: POW slave converted to Islam, originally Turkish • Began as a slaving system, eventually led to self-power The Crusades >> A false cause for the current crisis >> The Crusades are why we are at war with the Islams >> Wrongly planted in the minds of westerners :: The Crusades are why there exists ISIS >> Bill Clinton, 1990s << • Had “relations” with Osama bin Laden, he was our ally • Wrongly blamed for not keeping him in captivity >> Osama bin Laden, 2001 << • “Their defeat in Iraq will mean defeat in all their wars and a beginning of the receding of their Zionist tie against us.” >> George W. Bush, after 9/11 << >> Barack Obama, after Charlie Hebdo << • “Lest we get on our high horse and think this [terrorism] is unique…” [[ These four individuals blamed the Crusades for each of these occurrences ]] // Modern Misrepresentations of the Crusades // 1. The Crusades were an unprovoked attack on Islam 2. Christian knights became Crusaders to get rich 3. The Crusades were uncharacteristically violent 4. The Crusaders have been bitterly resent by Muslims for a thousand years What were the Crusades? A long-delayed response to Muslim aggression // A Timeline of Christian Defeats // 613 :: Jerusalem conquered by Persians 641 :: Alexandria captured by Persians 674 :: Muslims lay siege to Constantinople 717 :: Muslims lay siege to Constantinople again 718 :: Muslim Arabs conquer Spain 846 :: Muslim Arabs attack Rome 902 :: Muslim Arabs conquer Sicily 1071 :: Muslim Turks achieve ascendancy in Anatolia 1076 :: Muslim Turks take Damascus from Arabs 1095 :: The first Crusade // The Saracen Towers // >> Muslim raids on the Italian Coast >> Italy was under thread from Muslim raiders for centuries before for first Crusade in 1095 >> Sicily was occupied for much of the ninth century AD // Pope Urban II calls for “taking the cross” to the Holy Land // “Crusade” Taking the cross :: Response to Byzantine Emperor’s request for aid :: Relief for Christians in Byzantine :: Absolution for Christian knights // Popes were beginning Christian knights to stop fighting // “If you take up the cross, go to the Holy Land, and bail out the taken, they would get a “get out of jail free card” and have remission from their sins // Knights were eager about this // Headed to the Holy Land under the command of nobody in particular :: In the Christian world, Christian knights were always battling each other — Pope was wondering if Christian religion could survive because Christian knights were arguing over matters of land, money, economics, etc. First Great Crusader :: Godfrey de Bouillon, King of Jerusalem [1060-1100] First Crusade [1095] // Called by Pope Urban II >> Jerusalem captured in 1099 >> Crusader kingdoms established in the Holy Land 1101-1144 by European nobility Second Crusade [1147] // Called by Pope Eugene III Third Crusade [1187] Fourth Crusade [1203] Fifth Crusade [1218] Sixth Crusade [1228] Seventh Crusade [1258] Eighth Crusade [1270] // Called by King Louis IX Ninth Crusade [1271] // Called by King Louis IX Crusades Over [1303] >> Third through seventh Crusade called by Kings, Rulers, etc. >> Typical medieval mess >> If the Crusades destroyed anything, it was Christian Civilization “Outremer” Over the seas // Death Tolls // >> >> The Crusades have more deaths than the Vietnam War >> The Crusades have remarkably fewer deaths than WWI // The Madden Thesis // “Islam’s memory of the Crusades is a ‘recovered memory’ constructed by modern European imperial powers - not Muslims themselves” // Summary // >> The Crusades were a medieval phenomenon and a response to [rather than an initiation of] sustained aggression >> The causes of current strife between Islam and the west are modern in origin ??? Is Western Civilization largely responsible for the present day Middle East Crisis? Yes ??? If the Crusades aren’t responsible for the Crisis, then what is - and why do people keep blaming the Crusades? Stay tuned…


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