Intro to Adolescent Psychology
Intro to Adolescent Psychology Psych 30651
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Kaylynn Riley Williams
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Popular in Psychology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Turk on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 30651 at Kent State University taught by Haylee DeLuca in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
INTRODUCTION ● Early history ○ Reasoning appears ○ Distinct from childhood ● 20th & 21st century ○ Storm & Stress ■ G. Stanley Hall ○ Sociocultural view - Margaret Mead ○ Inventionist perspective ■ Adolesence is a socio-hisorical creation ■ Separating them from adults ○ Cohort effects = when comparing these differences between the different time periods ■ Ex. Millenials ● Born after the 1980s ● Ethnic diversity ○ More tolerant and openminded than previous generations ● Connection to technology ● Stereotyping = generalization that reflects our impressions about a broad category of people ○ Adolescent generalization gap ○ Often portrayed as abnormal in tv shows ○ TV coverage: crime victimization, accidents, or violent crime ● Stereotypes are not true ● Daniel Offer colleagues = 1988 ○ 73% had a positive self-image ○ Felt happy ○ Capable of exercising self-control ○ Valued work and school ○ Felt positively about their families ○ Felt able to deal with life’s stressors ● A positive view of adolescence ○ Competence ○ Confidence ○ Connection ■ Positive social relationships that they have ■ Family, friends, teachers ○ Character ■ Respect that they hold for their society and the norms they hold for that society ■ Moral understanding of right and wrong ○ Caring/compassion ■ The ability to show emotional concern for others ○ (5 Cs) ● Adolescents today ○ Best ■ Longer life expectancies ■ Cell phones ■ Techonology ○ Worst ■ Not cognitively or emotionally capable ■ Higher divorce rates ■ Increased adolescent pregnancies ● Adolescents are not a homogeneous group ● What impacts adolescent development? ○ The settings in which development occurs ■ Historical ■ Economic ■ Social ■ And cultural factors ○ Social policy = action designed by the government to influence the welfare of its citizens ○ Generational inequity = unfair treatment of younger members on an aging society ■ Older adults pile up advantages ● Social security and medicare The Global Perspective ● Health and well-being ○ Has improved ■ Fewer die from diseases and malnutrition ○ Other health behaviors are increasing ■ Drugs ■ Sex ● Gender ○ In some countries, females have a lot less freedom in careers and education ■ More restriction in sexual activity ● Family ○ Smaller families ■ Increases in maternal employment ■ Different parenting styles ● School ○ Adolescents enrolled in school has increased ● Peers ○ More important than families The Nature of Development ● Development = the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life span ○ Also includes decay (death and dying) ● Biological = the physical changes in an individual’s body ○ Genes inherited ○ Development of brain ○ Height and weight ○ Hormonal changes in puberty ● Socioemotional = changes in a person’s personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social contexts ○ Senior prom ● Cognitive = changes in thinking and intelligence ○ Ability to solve problems ○ Abstract imagination Periods of Development: Childhood ● Prenatal period = conception to birth ○ Tremendous growth ● Infancy = birth to 18 or 24 months ○ Extremely dependent ○ Start learning language and symbolic thought ○ Sensory motor coordination ○ Parent-child relationships begin ● Early childhood = infancy to 5 or 6 years ○ Learn to care for themselves ● Middle to Late Childhood = age 6 to 11 ○ Elementary school years ○ Mastering reading, writing, arithmetic ○ Developing social skills with peers Periods of Development: Adolescence ● Begins 10-13 until late teens ○ Transition from childhood to adulthood ● Early adolescence = middle school and junior high years ○ Includes pubertal changes ● Late adolescence = latter half of the second decade of life ○ Career interests ○ Dating ○ Who they are… developing their own identity Developmental Transitions: Childhood to Adolescence ● Biological ○ Growth spurt ○ Hormonal changes ○ Sexual maturation ● Cognitive ○ Increases in abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking ● Socioemotional changes ○ Independence ○ Conflict with parents ○ Desire to spend more time with peers ○ Conversations with friends become more intimate Developmental Transitions: Adolescence to Adulthood ● Approximately 18 to 25 ● Cultural standards ● Experimentation and exploration ○ Career paths ○ Identity ○ Finishing education ● Often referred to as emerging adulthood Emerging Adulthood ● Identity exploration ● Instability ● Feeling in-between ● Self-focused ● Choose one domain of life to focus on ○ Focus on what they want to do, and ignore everyone else ● When does it occur? ○ No concrete age Nature vs. Nurture ● Nature = an organism’s biological inheritance ○ genes ● Nurture = an organism’s environmental experiences ○ Social environment ○ Nutrition ○ Medical care ○ Drugs they’re exposed to ○ Family ○ Peers ○ Schooling ● It’s a combination of these two factors that shape who we are ● Continuity vs. Discontinuity ○ Continuity = development is a gradual process ○ Discontinuity = development is a distinct series of stages ● Early vs. Later Experiences ○ Early experiences = if children do not receive warm caretaking, they will not develop well ■ Attachment theory ○ Later experiences = children and adolescents are malleable ■ One bad relationship isn’t going to have long lasting effects Psychoanalytic Theories ● Freud’s Theory ○ Describes development as primarily unconscious and heavily influenced by emotion ○ Symbolic meanings of behavior ○ Early life experiences with parents shape who you are ○ Psychosexual Development ○ Personality Theory ■ Id = instincts ■ Ego = demands of reality ● Executive branch ● Rational decisions ■ Superego = morality ● Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory ○ The primary motivation for human behavior is social ○ Eight stages of development ■ Developmental tasks ● Evaluating psychoanalytic theories ○ Contributions ■ Emphasis on a developmental framework and family relationships ■ The unconscious aspect of the mind ○ Criticisms ■ Overemphasized sexual instincts ■ Not much empirical support Cognitive Theories ● Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory ○ People are constructing their understanding based on the world around them ○ Two processes underlie cognitive construction ■ Organization = adolescents organize their ideas and make sense of the world ■ Adaptation = adjusting to new environmental demands ○ Sensorimotor stage = birth to 2 ■ Infants are constructing an understanding to the world around them by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions ■ What they see and hear ○ Preoperational stage = 2 to 7 years ■ Begin to represent world with words and images ■ Develop an increase in symbolic and abstract thinking ○ Concrete operational stage ■ 7 to 11 ■ Logical reasoning about concrete events ■ Classify objects ○ Formal operational stage = 11 years to adulthood ■ Abstract, idealistic, and logical reasoning ● Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory ○ Emphasized social interaction and culture ■ Interactions with adults and peers ○ Information-processing Theory ■ Emphasizes that people ● Manipulate info ● Monitor it ● Strategize about it ■ No developmental stages ● Evaluating cognitive theories ○ Contributions ■ Positive view of development ■ Emphasize active construction of understanding ○ Criticisms ■ Skepticism about the pureness of stages ■ Individual variations ● Operant Conditioning ○ B.F. Skinner ○ Consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence ■ Rewards and punishments shape development ● Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory ○ Albert Bandura ○ Behavior, environment, and cognitions are key factors in development ■ Observational learning = learning occurs by observing what others do ● Will adopt the behavior themselves ● Contributions ○ Emphasis on scientific research ○ Environmental determinants of behavior ● Criticisms ○ Too little emphasis on cognition ○ Inadequate attention to developmental changes Ecological Theory ● Bronfenbrenner ● Development reflects the influence of five environmental systems ● Microsystem = the setting in which the adolescent lives ○ Peers ○ Family ○ School ○ Most influence on who they become ● Mesosystem = relations between microsystems ● Exosystem = links between a social setting in which the adolescent does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context ○ Ex. teen’s mother got a promotion ● Macrosystem = the culture in which adolescents live ○ Behavior patterns ○ beliefs ● Chronosystem = pattern of environment events and transitions over the life course ○ How career opportunities have changed for women over the last 50 years ● Contributions ○ Systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions ○ Connections between environmental systems ● Criticisms ○ Inadequate attention to biological factors ○ Too little emphasis on cognitive factors ○ Nature rather than nurture ● Eclectic theoretical orientation = does not follow any one theoretical approach ○ Just guidelines
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