Lab 4 prep
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 L at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see CBIO 2200 L in CBIO at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
The Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Limb Upper Extremity/Limb Arm • Humerus Forearm • Radius • Ulna Wrist & Hand • 8 Carpals • 5 Metacarpals • 14 Phlanges The Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvis/Pelvic Girdle Pelvic Girdle (2) • Os Coxae (2) a) Comprised of two coxal bones b) Joined in the front at the pubic symphysis c) Each os coxa is a fusion of 3 bones i. Ilium ii. Ischium iii. Pubis d) The acetabulum is a concave surface of the pelvis. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint e) Pubic symphysis- 2 pubic bones are joined by a pad of fibrocartilage The Appendicular Skeleton: Lower Limb Lower Extremity/Limb Thigh • Femur • Patella Leg • Tibia • Fibula Ankle & Foot • 7 Tarsals • 7 Metatarsals • 14 Phalanges • The Appendicular Skeleton: Lower Limb Topics covered: Joints and their classification, Synarthrotic joints, Amphiarthrotic joints, Diarthrotic joints, Synovial joints anatomy, Types of synovial joints Joints and their classification **Joints can be classified by their freedom of movement** Synarthrosis- little or no movement • Skull sutures, teeth in sockets Amphiarthrosis- slightly movable • Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, etc. Diarthrosis- freely movable • Shoulder, elbow, carpal joints, knee, tarsal joints, etc. **Or by their physical nature** Fibrous- collagen fibers spanning the space between bones • Skull sutures, teeth in sockets, distal radioulnar joints, etc. Cartilaginous- 2 bones bound to each other by cartilage • Intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, etc. Synovial- bones held together by a joint capsule filled with synovial fluid • Shoulder, elbow, carpal joints, knee, tarsal joints, etc. **There is overlap between the 2 classification systems** Synarthrotic Joints • No movement between bones Types • Suture -Fibrous joint -Ex. Adjacent bones in cranium • Gomphosis -Fibrous joint -Ex. Teeth in sockets of mandible or maxilla • Synchondrosis -Hyaline cartilaginous joint -Ex: joint between epiphyses and diaphysis of the growing bones • Synostosis occurs when two bones fuse and the joint becomes a bony joint -Ossification occurs with age between some cranial sutures and epiphyses and diaphysis of the long bones Amphiarthrotic Joints • Limited range of motion Types • Syndesmosis (most movable) -Fibrous joint- 2 bones bound by ligament only -Ex. Distal radius and ulna or distal tibia and fibula • Synchondrosis -Bones are bound by hyaline cartilage -Ex. Rib attachment to sternum by costal cartilage • Symphysis (least movable) -Bones are joined by fibrocartilage -Ex. Pubic symphysis Diarthrotic Joints • All diarthrotic joints are synovial joints • Synovial joint: joint in which two bones are separated by a space called a joint cavity • Most are freely movable Synovial joint anatomy Fibrous capsule- outer part of synovial joint, is fused with ligaments Synovial membrane- inside the joint capsule; secretes synovial fluid Synovial fluid- lubricates the articular cartilage to reduce friction Synovial cavity- space inside the joint between the two articulating bones Articular cartilage- hyaline cartilage covering the ends of the bones in the synovial cavity Types of synovial joints 1) Hinge • One bone with convex surface that fits into a concave depression on another bone • Changes the angle between the two bones • Angular movement 2) Pivot • One bone has a projection that fits into a ringlike ligament of another • Allows for rotational movement between two bones 3) Ball-and-socket • Smooth hemispherical head fits with in cuplike depression • Extensive movement, yet less stable (dislocation) 4) Condyloid • A convex surface articulates with a concave surface • Allows significant movement in two planes 5) Gliding • Allows movement between two plane surfaces 6) Saddle • Two concave surfaces that articulate with one another • Similar, but greater movement than with a condyloid joint Body Movements Types of body movements: Flexion and Extension Abduction and Adduction Circumduction Rotation (medial, lateral) Pronation and Supination Dorsiflextion and Plantar Flexion Inversion and Eversion Retraction and Protraction Elevation and Depression Opposition and Reposition
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