Lecture notes from week 1 of general Psych
Lecture notes from week 1 of general Psych PSY2012-16Fall 0002
University of Central Florida
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 General Psychology Dr. Alisha Janowsky Psychology: Is a statistical science – meaning it operates on averages -‐Looks at average behavior to gage the “norm” and sort of develops theories from there -‐It is up to you to decide whether or not you believe the theories -‐ but you still have to know them -‐Psych is so popular because we are naturally curious about why people do what they do…people watching, talk radios, etc. 1879 – the first psych study - Introspection Wilhelm Wundt – 1 experiment conducted in Leipzig Germany He was a physicist who wanted to fundamentally break down the physics of the mind. He wanted to make it into a periodic table so to speak He used introspection. Example; Think of the word apple Apple…apple juice…fruit…mac…Red…apple picking…Apple Bees..Etc.… Element or atoms of the mind – 3 elements 1. Sensation (40,000 different elements) 2. Images -‐ elements of ideas 3. Affections -‐ elements of emotions Considered to be the birth of psych, as we know it today But the problems are… -‐ Use of introspection is not reliable -‐ Didn’t really put his findings to any good use -‐ Didn’t account for Darwin’s work on natural selection Functionalism: 1890 –William James He actually did consider Darwin’s work in his studies -‐ First American School of Psychology -‐ Study of the mind as it functions in adapting to the environment For example, considering why prejudice exists from a biological standpoint – because keep in mind that the ultimate goal for organisms is to reproduce. So he asked the question “What could have happened in our species’ past to make this useful?” Perhaps its that what is similar to us is safe. Psychoanalysis: Psychoanalysis – 1900 Sigmund Freud -‐ He looked at the Why? What is the reason for this behavior? He focused on abnormal behavior – and determined that it’s often the result of some unresolved conflict -‐ Example; relationship issues with your mother -‐ Emphasis on the unconscious He used free association and dream analysis Free association – The idea that if you keep talking for long enough you’ll eventually get to the root of the problem Dream Analysis – Is just what it sounds like. Freud is the reason that we can Google what it means to dream that we fell off a building. By knowing a little bit more about the abnormal, it makes us question what and how we can define what is normal The issue with this is that it is not experimental, it is all just theory – and the issue with theory is that you can make anything fit if you try hard enough. Behaviorism: Watson and Skinner – 1913 “It doesn’t really matter how you’re feeling but rather what you’re doing.” -‐ They are looking at the behavior itself rather than the underlying motivation for it. -‐ They studied only what could be observed and measured objectively and focused on how behaviors are learned and modified. For example; if you’re on a diet do you look at a cookie and think, “I’m using this cookie to fill a void in my life,” or, “I really want this cookie because it tastes good but I should get a carrot instead.” Today’s Definition: Psychology-‐ the science of behavior and mental processes APA – American Psychology Association Big Issues in Psych: Nativism VS Imperialism – Nature VS Nurture How do biology and the environment impact who we are? Plato – inborn ideas Much of who we are is just inherently in our biology and the surrounding environment won’t change that Locke – Tabula Rasa – blank slate We are born with an entirely clean slate and the environment we are in completely impacts and shapes who we are Darwin-‐ Natural Selection Today we pretty much say that, “Nurture works on what Nature endows.” We can’t write off biology but the environment also plays a big role. Today’s Psych Perspectives: 1. Neuro Science – How the body and brain make emotions 2. Evolutionary Psych – How nature selects traits that promote perpetuation of one’s genes 3. Behavioral – How genes and environment influence individual differences 4. Psychodynamic Research – How behavior develops from unconscious / conflict 5. Behaviorism – Learn observable responses 6. Cognitive- code, process, store, and retrieve info 7. Socio Cultural- How culture influences behavior and thought Subfields: 1. Basic Research – Cognitive, social, development, personality, psychological 2. Applied research – how can the world use psych, especially in the work place Human factors, school psych, health psych 3. Professional areas – PHD-‐ Counseling (like for a divorce) Clinical (for disorders) MD-‐ Psychiatry – they have gone through med school to become doctors so they are the ones who can prescribe medications Limitations of institution and common sense: Hindsight Bias: tendency to believe that we would have foreseen an outcome after we’ve learned it. Things like “absence makes the heart grow fonder” and “Internet relationships are just as strong as…” we can’t make assumptions about this we have to do research on it Overconfidence: thinking we know a lot more than we do. It ties into making assumptions about things Confirmation Bias: tendency to search for information that confirms our preconceptions. -‐ This goes back to that red circle black triangle card question from class. We immediately look at the red circle and black triangle cards even though that wasn’t what we should have selected. The Scientific Method: 1. Theories: “General principle or set of principles about a class of events” We can turn out theories into 2. Hypotheses that we can test. “Predictions about the causes of behavior based on a theory” 3. Operationally define variables: “Specification about how a hypothesis will be tested” Be as specific as godly possible. 4. Cyclical Research Cycle: because nothing is reallllyyyy set in stone Description Studies: Case Studies: “in depth observations of one person in the hope of revealing universal principles.” For example, if you’re interested in studying freshman college students you just pick one a follow them around all the time and then, at the end, say that this person is the epitome of all college freshman. Problem: It tends to overwhelm general truths. Your experience as a freshman is probably very different from someone else’s. Naturalistic Observations: “Observe and record behavior without trying to manipulate or control the situation.” That is to say that you simply just follow and observe without instigation or interference. One of the most famous of these is Jane Goodall’s study of chimpanzees. Problem: The only problem is that describing observations offers next to nothing in terms of explanation. Surveys: “technique for acquiring self reported attitudes and behaviors” Need a representative – random sample The entire population is unreachable so you get a sample to represent the entire population at large. Take a look at the demographics. For example if you are doing a survey through target and the majority of the shoppers are women than you might want to try to get more women in your sample group. But you also want it to be random so that everyone gets equal opportunity to participate. False Consensus Effect: tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. Example: If you are given an assignment to ask ten people about the NFL situation who would you ask? Your roommate? Coworkers, friends, family. You ask people who are convenient to you. And then you assume that the people who you are close to who generally share the same attitudes and opinions that you have and then assume that the rest of the world also shares those same opinions. Correlational Studies: Correlation: “A statistical measure indicating how closely 2 things vary together” Correlations can only range from negative one to positive one I.E. Correlations can either be positive, negative, nonlinear, or zero, having no correlation -‐1.00 is a perfect negative and vise versa, 1.00 is a perfect positive correlation. Correlation is not causation. It just implies some sort of relationship. **Reference bar graphs on the slides Illusory Correlations: “perceptions of relationships that do not really exist” Ex: “every time I’m late I hit every single red light.” But part of that is because you are actively thinking about it so maybe you count them. But when you’re not running late you’re not thinking about it so you have no idea how many lights you hit/ran?? Idk Experimental Studies: The only way we can talk about causation is by doing an experiment “Manipulation of factors to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process.” Independent Variable (IV): manipulated variable Dependent Variable (DV): measured variable Random Assignment: Once you have your sample you’re going to randomly put them into different groups – it equalizes individual differences. For example if you’re measuring how light affects sleep you may have really heavy sleepers and other people who suffer from insomnia. If you randomly separate people hopefully it eliminates the chance that you’ll have a group chalk full of people who have insomnia. Independent Variable: Different conditions = different “levels” Control: comparison condition used to evaluate the effect of the IV Placebo: administered in place of the active agent to evaluate the effect of the IV Experimental: exposes subject to one level of the IV Problem: researchers might inadvertently, unintentionally subject you to answering or responding to them in a way that supports their hypothesis. To avoid this they do double blind studies: the researcher and subject are ignorant to what condition the subject has been randomly assigned Example: Hypothesis: People get better looking at closing time – beer goggles… DV: levels of physical attractiveness Operational definition: rate attractiveness of target picture on scale of one to ten IV: amount of alcohol -‐ control – give ratings only (sober) Placebo – drink sugary drink with no alcohol Experimental – drink a sugary drink mixed w either three or five ounces of alcohol So in this particular study, there would be 4 levels of independent variables Control, placebo, 3oz condition, 5oz condition Statistical reasoning – we look at statistical averages When we make inferences about the data we have to ask: When is a difference reliable? Ex: you go to Dunkin and get a donut and have a great experience and then you go back the next day expecting that same experience and if you don’t its unreliable Representative VS Biased sample Who did you sample? Were the people convenient to you? Less variable VS More variable More subjects VS Less subjects The more the subjects the more reliable most likely Was this difference significant? Review tutorial under exam one info if you need clarification with any of this^^ Ethics: The APA sets guidelines about what researchers can and cannot do -‐They are required to give out a consent form to every subject -‐Protect from harm and discomfort -‐Keep data confidential Doing research with a population that can’t give consent -‐Animal research, children, prisoners Animals: -‐Try to give them reasonably natural environment -‐Try to make them comfortable -‐Minimize pain and illness Exam – is next Thursday -‐9/15 –-‐review session is online**** Get brown scantron Recap: 1. Structuralism 2. Functionalism 3. Freud/psychoanalysis 4. Behaviorism
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