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Lecture notes from week 1 of general Psych

by: Becca Petersen

Lecture notes from week 1 of general Psych PSY2012-16Fall 0002

Marketplace > University of Central Florida > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY2012-16Fall 0002 > Lecture notes from week 1 of general Psych
Becca Petersen
University of Central Florida

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Lecture notes from week 1 one general psych. These are only the lecture notes and don't include a chapter outline from the text book. That material will be included in the study guide for the fir...
General Psychology
Dr. Alisha Janowsky
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, psych, Psychology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Petersen on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012-16Fall 0002 at University of Central Florida taught by Dr. Alisha Janowsky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Central Florida.

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Date Created: 09/08/16
Psychology: PSY2012 -16Fall 0002 General Psychology Dr. Alisha Janowsky Psychology: Is  a  statistical  science  –  meaning  it  operates  on  averages   -­‐Looks  at  average  behavior  to  gage  the  “norm”  and  sort  of  develops  theories  from   there     -­‐It  is  up  to  you  to  decide  whether  or  not  you  believe  the  theories    -­‐  but  you  still  have  to   know  them     -­‐Psych  is  so  popular  because  we  are  naturally  curious  about  why  people  do  what  they   do…people  watching,  talk  radios,  etc.         1879 – the first psych study - Introspection   Wilhelm  Wundt  –  1  experiment  conducted  in  Leipzig  Germany   He  was  a  physicist  who  wanted  to  fundamentally  break  down  the  physics  of  the  mind.       He  wanted  to  make  it  into  a  periodic  table  so  to  speak       He  used   introspection.     Example;  Think  of  the  word  apple     Apple…apple  juice…fruit…mac…Red…apple  picking…Apple  Bees..Etc.…     Element  or  atoms  of  the  mind  –  3  elements   1. Sensation  (40,000  different  elements)   2. Images  -­‐  elements  of  ideas     3. Affections  -­‐  elements  of  emotions     Considered  to  be  the  birth  of  psych,  as  we  know  it  today   But  the  problems  are…     -­‐          Use  of  introspection  is  not  reliable   -­‐ Didn’t  really  put  his  findings  to  any  good  use   -­‐ Didn’t  account  for  Darwin’s  work  on  natural  selection       Functionalism:   1890  –William  James   He  actually  did  consider  Darwin’s  work  in  his  studies     -­‐  First  American  School  of  Psychology   -­‐  Study  of  the  mind  as  it  functions  in  adapting  to  the  environment     For  example,  considering  why  prejudice  exists  from  a  biological  standpoint  –   because  keep  in  mind  that  the  ultimate  goal  for  organisms  is  to  reproduce.       So  he  asked  the  question  “What  could  have  happened  in  our  species’  past  to  make  this   useful?”     Perhaps  its  that  what  is  similar  to  us  is  safe.         Psychoanalysis:   Psychoanalysis  –  1900  Sigmund  Freud  -­‐     He  looked  at  the  Why?    What  is  the  reason  for  this  behavior?     He  focused  on  abnormal  behavior  –  and  determined  that  it’s  often  the  result  of  some   unresolved  conflict       -­‐  Example;  relationship  issues  with  your  mother       -­‐  Emphasis  on  the  unconscious       He  used  free  association  and  dream  analysis     Free  association  –       The  idea  that  if  you  keep  talking  for  long  enough  you’ll  eventually  get  to  the  root  of   the  problem     Dream  Analysis  –       Is  just  what  it  sounds  like.    Freud  is  the  reason  that  we  can  Google  what  it  means  to   dream  that  we  fell  off  a  building.         By  knowing  a  little  bit  more  about  the  abnormal,  it  makes  us  question  what  and  how  we  can   define  what  is  normal     The  issue  with  this  is  that  it  is  not  experimental,  it  is  all  just  theory  –  and  the  issue  with   theory  is  that  you  can  make  anything  fit  if  you  try  hard  enough.       Behaviorism:   Watson  and  Skinner  –  1913     “It  doesn’t  really  matter  how  you’re  feeling  but  rather  what  you’re  doing.”     -­‐    They  are  looking  at  the  behavior  itself  rather  than  the  underlying  motivation  for  it.   -­‐    They  studied  only  what  could  be  observed  and  measured  objectively  and  focused       on  how  behaviors  are  learned  and  modified.         For  example;  if  you’re  on  a  diet  do  you  look  at  a  cookie  and  think,  “I’m  using  this   cookie  to  fill  a  void  in  my  life,”  or,  “I  really  want  this  cookie  because  it  tastes  good   but  I  should  get  a  carrot  instead.”         Today’s Definition:   Psychology-­‐  the  science  of  behavior  and  mental  processes     APA  –  American  Psychology  Association     Big Issues in Psych: Nativism  VS  Imperialism  –  Nature  VS  Nurture     How  do  biology  and  the  environment  impact  who  we  are?       Plato  –  inborn  ideas   Much  of  who  we  are  is  just  inherently  in  our  biology  and  the  surrounding   environment  won’t  change  that     Locke  –  Tabula  Rasa  –  blank  slate   We  are  born  with  an  entirely  clean  slate  and  the  environment  we  are  in   completely  impacts  and  shapes  who  we  are       Darwin-­‐  Natural  Selection     Today  we  pretty  much  say  that,    “Nurture  works  on  what  Nature  endows.”     We  can’t  write  off  biology  but  the  environment  also  plays  a  big  role.       Today’s Psych Perspectives: 1. Neuro Science – How  the  body  and  brain  make  emotions 2. Evolutionary Psych – How  nature  selects  traits  that  promote  perpetuation  of   one’s  genes   3. Behavioral – How  genes  and  environment  influence  individual  differences 4. Psychodynamic Research – How  behavior  develops  from  unconscious  /  conflict 5. Behaviorism – Learn  observable  responses 6. Cognitive- code,  process,  store,  and  retrieve  info 7. Socio Cultural- How  culture  influences  behavior  and  thought   Subfields:   1.    Basic  Research  –     Cognitive,  social,  development,  personality,  psychological     2.    Applied  research  –  how  can  the  world  use  psych,  especially  in  the  work  place     Human  factors,  school  psych,  health  psych     3.    Professional  areas  –     PHD-­‐       Counseling  (like  for  a  divorce)       Clinical  (for  disorders)   MD-­‐   Psychiatry  –  they  have  gone  through  med  school  to  become  doctors  so  they   are  the  ones  who  can  prescribe  medications   Limitations of institution and common sense:   Hindsight  Bias:    tendency  to  believe  that  we  would  have  foreseen  an  outcome  after  we’ve   learned  it.     Things  like  “absence  makes  the  heart  grow  fonder”  and  “Internet  relationships  are  just  as   strong  as…”  we  can’t  make  assumptions  about  this  we  have  to  do  research  on  it     Overconfidence:    thinking  we  know  a  lot  more  than  we  do.    It  ties  into  making  assumptions   about  things     Confirmation  Bias:    tendency  to  search  for  information  that  confirms  our  preconceptions.       -­‐ This  goes  back  to  that  red  circle  black  triangle  card  question  from  class.    We   immediately  look  at  the  red  circle  and  black  triangle  cards  even  though  that   wasn’t  what  we  should  have  selected.     The Scientific Method:   1.    Theories:    “General  principle  or  set  of  principles  about  a  class  of  events”     We  can  turn  out  theories  into   2.  Hypotheses  that  we  can  test.       “Predictions  about  the  causes  of  behavior  based  on  a  theory”     3.    Operationally  define  variables:    “Specification  about  how  a  hypothesis  will  be  tested”     Be  as  specific  as  godly  possible.     4.    Cyclical  Research  Cycle:    because  nothing  is  reallllyyyy  set  in  stone       Description Studies:     Case  Studies:    “in  depth  observations  of  one  person  in  the  hope  of  revealing  universal   principles.”     For  example,  if  you’re  interested  in  studying  freshman  college  students  you  just  pick   one  a  follow  them  around  all  the  time  and  then,  at  the  end,  say  that  this  person  is  the   epitome  of  all  college  freshman.     Problem:    It  tends  to  overwhelm  general  truths.    Your  experience  as  a  freshman  is   probably  very  different  from  someone  else’s.   Naturalistic  Observations:    “Observe  and  record  behavior  without  trying  to  manipulate  or   control  the  situation.”     That  is  to  say  that  you  simply  just  follow  and  observe  without  instigation  or   interference.    One  of  the  most  famous  of  these  is  Jane  Goodall’s  study  of  chimpanzees.   Problem:    The  only  problem  is  that  describing  observations  offers  next  to   nothing  in  terms  of  explanation.           Surveys:    “technique  for  acquiring  self  reported  attitudes  and  behaviors”     Need  a  representative  –  random  sample       The  entire  population  is  unreachable  so  you  get  a  sample  to  represent  the  entire   population  at  large.    Take  a  look  at  the  demographics.    For  example  if  you  are  doing  a   survey  through  target  and  the  majority  of  the  shoppers  are  women  than  you  might  want  to   try  to  get  more  women  in  your  sample  group.    But  you  also  want  it  to  be  random  so  that   everyone  gets  equal  opportunity  to  participate.       False  Consensus  Effect:    tendency  to  overestimate  the  extent  to  which  others  share   our  beliefs  and  behaviors.         Example:    If  you  are  given  an  assignment  to  ask  ten  people  about  the  NFL   situation  who  would  you  ask?    Your  roommate?  Coworkers,  friends,  family.    You  ask  people   who  are  convenient  to  you.    And  then  you  assume  that  the  people  who  you  are  close  to  who   generally  share  the  same  attitudes  and  opinions  that  you  have  and  then  assume  that  the   rest  of  the  world  also  shares  those  same  opinions.       Correlational Studies: Correlation:    “A  statistical  measure  indicating  how  closely  2  things  vary  together”     Correlations  can  only  range  from  negative  one  to  positive  one   I.E.    Correlations  can  either  be  positive,  negative,  nonlinear,  or  zero,  having  no  correlation     -­‐1.00  is  a  perfect  negative  and  vise  versa,  1.00  is  a  perfect  positive  correlation.         Correlation  is  not  causation.    It  just  implies  some  sort  of  relationship.         **Reference  bar  graphs  on  the  slides     Illusory  Correlations:  “perceptions  of  relationships  that  do  not  really  exist”         Ex:    “every  time  I’m  late  I  hit  every  single  red  light.”    But  part  of  that  is   because  you  are  actively  thinking  about  it  so  maybe  you  count  them.    But  when  you’re  not   running  late  you’re  not  thinking  about  it  so  you  have  no  idea  how  many  lights  you  hit/ran??   Idk       Experimental Studies: The  only  way  we  can  talk  about  causation  is  by  doing  an  experiment     “Manipulation  of  factors  to  observe  their  effect  on  some  behavior  or  mental  process.”     Independent  Variable  (IV):    manipulated  variable   Dependent  Variable  (DV):    measured  variable     Random  Assignment:    Once  you  have  your  sample  you’re  going  to  randomly  put  them  into   different  groups  –  it  equalizes  individual  differences.         For  example  if  you’re  measuring  how  light  affects  sleep  you  may  have  really  heavy   sleepers  and  other  people  who  suffer  from  insomnia.    If  you  randomly  separate  people   hopefully  it  eliminates  the  chance  that  you’ll  have  a  group  chalk  full  of  people  who  have   insomnia.         Independent  Variable:   Different  conditions  =  different  “levels”     Control:    comparison  condition  used  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  the  IV   Placebo:    administered  in  place  of  the  active  agent  to  evaluate  the  effect  of  the  IV   Experimental:  exposes  subject  to  one  level  of  the  IV     Problem:  researchers  might  inadvertently,  unintentionally  subject  you  to  answering  or   responding  to  them  in  a  way  that  supports  their  hypothesis.         To  avoid  this  they  do  double  blind  studies:    the  researcher  and  subject  are  ignorant  to  what   condition  the  subject  has  been  randomly  assigned     Example:     Hypothesis:     People  get  better  looking  at  closing  time  –  beer  goggles…   DV:  levels  of  physical  attractiveness   Operational  definition:  rate  attractiveness  of  target  picture  on  scale  of  one  to  ten   IV:  amount  of  alcohol    -­‐  control  –  give  ratings  only  (sober)   Placebo  –  drink  sugary  drink  with  no  alcohol   Experimental  –  drink  a  sugary  drink  mixed  w  either  three  or  five  ounces  of  alcohol     So  in  this  particular  study,  there  would  be  4  levels  of  independent  variables     Control,  placebo,  3oz  condition,  5oz  condition     Statistical  reasoning  –  we  look  at  statistical  averages     When  we  make  inferences  about  the  data  we  have  to  ask:     When  is  a  difference   reliable?     Ex:  you  go  to  Dunkin  and  get  a  donut  and  have  a  great  experience  and  then   you  go  back  the  next  day  expecting  that  same  experience  and  if  you  don’t  its   unreliable       Representative  VS  Biased  sample       Who  did  you  sample?    Were  the  people  convenient  to  you?       Less  variable  VS  More  variable         More  subjects  VS  Less  subjects       The  more  the  subjects  the  more  reliable  most  likely     Was  this  difference   significant?   Review  tutorial  under  exam  one  info  if  you  need  clarification  with  any  of  this^^     Ethics:   The  APA  sets  guidelines  about  what  researchers  can  and  cannot  do       -­‐They  are  required  to  give  out  a  consent  form  to  every  subject   -­‐Protect  from  harm  and  discomfort   -­‐Keep  data  confidential       Doing  research  with  a  population  that  can’t  give  consent     -­‐Animal  research,  children,  prisoners     Animals:     -­‐Try  to  give  them  reasonably  natural  environment     -­‐Try  to  make  them  comfortable     -­‐Minimize  pain  and  illness     Exam  –  is  next  Thursday    -­‐9/15  –-­‐review  session  is  online****   Get  brown  scantron     Recap:     1. Structuralism   2. Functionalism   3. Freud/psychoanalysis   4. Behaviorism    


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