The West By 1750
Popular in World History since 1500
Popular in History
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by meghan Hamilton on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HST 198 at Miami University taught by Dr. Dewitt S. Chandler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see World History since 1500 in History at Miami University.
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Date Created: 09/08/16
The West By 1750 Political Patterns ● English politics settled into a parliamentary routine, political groups competed for influence ● Absolute monarchy in France became a little less effective ○ Couldn’t force changes to tax structure, aristocrats refused to surrender their traditional exemptions ● Frederick the Great: introduced greater freedom of religion while expanding the economic functions of the state ○ Actively encouraged better agricultural methods ■ Promoted the use of the American potato ● France and Britain were in war during the 1740’s and again in the Seven Years War ○ Battles for colonial empire ● Austria and Prussia also fought(Prussia gained new lands) Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture ● Enlightenment: centered in France ○ Enlightenment thinkers supported scientific advances ■ Chemists gained new understanding of major elements ■ Biologists discovered new classification systems ■ Also pioneered the application of scientific methods ■ Rational laws could describe social and physical behavior: this knowledge could be used to improve policies ● This thinking lead to criminologists to say that brutal punishments did not deter crime ○ Adam Smith: set forth a number of principles for economic behavior ■ Argued that people are selfinterested ■ Argued government should avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative ○ Denis Diderot: leader of the French Enlightenment ■ Best known for his editorial work on the Encyclopedia ■ Wrote on philosophy, math and psychology of deafmutes ■ Also traveled to foreign courts as an advisor and intellectual Change in Commerce and Manufacturing ● Mass consumerism ● Cotton textiles became more popular and were spread more widely ○ Theft of clothing increased in the 18th century ● Another change: growing use of paid professional entertainment ○ Circuses first introduced in France in the 1670’s ● Agriculture began to change ○ Threefield system ○ Seeddrills ○ Scythes instead of sickles ● New World Crop: the potato. Used to be shunned because it was thought to cause plagues ○ peasants s desire to win greater economic security and better nutrition lead to a larger use of this crop ● Capitalism also spread(investments in hope of a large gain) Innovation and Instability ● New beliefs raised political challenges ● Children were raised with less adult restraint and encouraged to value their individual worth
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