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Week 2 Chemistry Notes

by: Amelia

Week 2 Chemistry Notes CHEM 1127Q-011

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About this Document

Covers the end of Chapter 1 and beginning of Chapter 2: measurement and atoms. (9/7)
General Chemistry
Dr. Cady
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia on Thursday September 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1127Q-011 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Cady in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 09/08/16
9/7  CHAPTER 1­ Essential Ideas (cont.)    Measurement (cont)  1) The goal is to be accurate and precise   a) Accuracy: ​the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification  conforms to the correct value or a standard.  b) Precision: the degree to which the results are similar (how often you get the same  number)    Scientific Notation  1) A method for writing numbers that is more pre−6se and often shorter  a) Example: .0000025 = 2.5  × 10    2) Significant Figures   a) The numbers we know precisely   b) Zeros in Significant Figures  i) Zeros in the middle of numbers are significant. Zeros after a real number and  decimal point are real.  (1) example: 203 = 3 significant figures  (2) example: 1.003 = 4 significant figures   ii) Zeros before a decimal point are real.  (1) example: 2000.0 = 5 significant figures  iii) Zeros are not significant when real numbers follow the zeros and the decimal  place.  (1) example: 0.00002 = 1 significant figure  iv) Zeros are not significant after a real number without a decimal point.  (1) example: 500 = 1 significant figure  3) Exact Numbers   a) Exact counting of discrete thing. For example, 12 eggs are countable, simply 12.  4) Significant Figures in Math  a) Multiplication and division  i) Take least number of significant figures  (1) example: 10.​0÷ 3.3333 = 3.33 ​ ​33 → 3.33  b) Addition and subtraction  i) Take the least number of decimal places  (1) example: 1562​4 ​ + 1.02 = 15625 ​ ​.02 → 15625  c) Multiple step equa​tions  i) Do the stuff in parentheses “(...)” first  ii) Don’t round until the end!  (1) example: (2.0×5.01) ­ 0.002  (2) (2.0×5.01) = 1​0​.02   (3) 10​ ​.02 ­ 0.002 = ​ ​.018 → 10    Converting Between Units  1) Always write out all units  2) Cancel units as you go. All units must cancel or be in your product!  a) Example: 2.0km/g → ?m/g  b) 2.0km/g  • ( −3 ) ​   2.0​ g  •( 1−3 )• m → 2.0 m/g (10  )  3 10  kg 10  c) 2.0 × 10 m/g  3) Units Raised to a Power  a) When you have a unit like ​cm​  and you want to convert it to ft​  you may need to adjust  your conversion factor  b) Example:    Credit­ ​­da.html    4) Temperature Units  a) Fahrenheit­ water freezes at 32​° and boils at 212° based on salt water freezing at 0° and  100° being around body temperature.  b) Celsius­ water freezes at 0° and boils at 100°  c) Kelvin­ absolute zero is 0°  d) Formulas:  i) C° = (°F­32)/1.8   ii) F° = °C× 1.8 + 32  (1) Example: convert 80°F into Celsius  (2) (​8​0°­32°)/1.8 =  (3) 48​ °/1.8 = ​ ​6.6666 → 30° Celsius  iii) K = °C + 273.15  (1) Example: 77K in °C  (2) 77­273 ​ .​ 15 = ­19​6​.15 → 196° Celsius  iv) °C = K ­ 273.15                    CHAPTER 2­ Atoms and Elements  The Atom  1) History   a) John Dalton  i) Established Atomic Theory around 1800  ii) Atom­ the smallest unit of an element that can not be divided and remain himself  iii) Atomic Theory  (1) Atoms of different elements have different masses  (2) Different combinations produce different compounds  (3) Atoms cannot be created or destroyed  b) JJ Thomson and Ernest Rutherford  i) Used a cathode ray to discover negatively charged particles in atoms called  electrons.  c) Rutherford Backscattering  i) Used a beam of alpha particles aimed a piece of gold foil. Most of the atoms went  through the foil, with some small deflections, leading to the discovery of empty  space in atoms.  2) Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.  a) Protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus  b) Electrons revolve around the nucleus in a ‘cloud’     


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